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Computation of Program Source Code Similarity by Composition of Parse Tree and Call Graph

Hyun-Je Song, Seong-Bae Park, Se Young Park
2015 Mathematical Problems in Engineering  
Since the syntactic information of a program is expressed as its parse tree, the syntactic similarity between two programs is computed by a parse tree kernel.  ...  Then, both structural similarities are reflected simultaneously into comparing program source codes by composing the parse tree and the graph kernels based on a cyclomatic complexity.  ...  , Kyungpook National University, Korea (21A20131600005), and by ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP (10044494, WiseKB: Big data based selfevolving knowledge base and reasoning platform).  ... 
doi:10.1155/2015/429807 fatcat:hipq6u5tknhq5hy75umuqokuza

WASTK: A Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel Method for Source Code Plagiarism Detection

Deqiang Fu, Yanyan Xu, Haoran Yu, Boyang Yang
2017 Scientific Programming  
In this paper, we introduce a source code plagiarism detection method, named WASTK (Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel), for computer science education.  ...  Different from other plagiarism detection methods, WASTK takes some aspects other than the similarity between programs into account.  ...  In ASTK, a method called tree kernel [7] is used for measuring the similarity between a pair of programs.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2017/7809047 fatcat:za7s5oo2o5bkppua5w7zjyxw7i

A Survey: Document Spamming Detection and Plagiarism Content Techniques

Nidhi Ruthia, Abhigyan Tiwary
2018 IJARCCE  
The detection techniques are applied by differentiating between variety of languages such as natural and programming language.  ...  Plagiarism is defined as representing someone else words, thoughts, knowledge, methods, programs etc in our own name.  ...  Parse Tree Similarities: Using parse tree for plagiarism detection makes the detection easy and quick.  ... 
doi:10.17148/ijarcce.2018.7818 fatcat:m7h4hl4idjf6lmh77puauxkfvi

Comparison of Clang Abstract Syntax Trees using String Kernels

Raul Torres, Thomas Ludwig, Julian M. Kunkel, Manuel F. Dolz
2018 2018 International Conference on High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS)  
Syntax Trees (ASTs) are intermediate representations widely used by compiler frameworks. One of their strengths is that they can be used to determine the similarity among a collection of programs.  ...  Our kernel and two other string kernels from the literature were used to obtain similarity matrices among those examples. Next, we used Hierarchical Clustering to visualize the results.  ...  [20] used a combined approach of parse trees and function-call graphs. They created a composite kernel, with the parse tree kernel and the graph kernel. Similar works, such as by Sharma et al.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpcs.2018.00032 dblp:conf/ieeehpcs/Torres0KD18 fatcat:lojjvrxqpjgurfie4tdx6z5v6e

A Deep Learning Approach for Malware and Software Piracy Threat Detection

K. Aldriwish
2021 Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research  
Apart from this, TensorFlow Deep Neural Networks (TFDNNs) are introduced to detect software piracy threats according to source code plagiarism.  ...  The security of IoT networks is challenged by software piracy and malware attacks, and much important information can be stolen and used for cybercrimes.  ...  Then, the syntax tree detected the syntactic view and the abstract of the source code. Authors in [20] attempted to detect similar source code fragments using the parse tree kernel.  ... 
doi:10.48084/etasr.4412 fatcat:tdu5smb5hjgsdeegll6nmlo7vy

A Qualitative Interpretation of Code Clone Detection Techniques

2020 VOLUME-8 ISSUE-10, AUGUST 2019, REGULAR ISSUE  
Many techniques are developed for detection. With the code clone detection, the software developer gets an idea of removing, refactoring the clone.  ...  Typically, this paper describes various techniques by using several parameters. Lastly, we discuss gaps in the research.  ...  [21] present the tool that detects plagiarism through a program dependency graph. Many plagiarism tools are available for academic use.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijitee.d1429.029420 fatcat:mz3rkokjsndibforbbbtjghsty

SSA-HIAST: A Novel Framework for Code Clone Detection

Neha Saini, Sukhdip Singh
2022 Computers Materials & Continua  
To reuse software, the copy and paste method is used and this whole process is known as code cloning.  ...  In the recent era of software development, reusing software is one of the major activities that is widely used to save time.  ...  The model is based on transitive closure computation using the Hadoop ecosystem [8] . The authors presented a parse tree kernel-based code plagiarism detection method.  ... 
doi:10.32604/cmc.2022.022659 fatcat:lh3i7dw62jeyxmobdd5vc2grpe

DECKARD: Scalable and Accurate Tree-Based Detection of Code Clones

Lingxiao Jiang, Ghassan Misherghi, Zhendong Su, Stephane Glondu
2007 Proceedings / International Conference of Software Engineering  
We have implemented our tree similarity algorithm as a clone detection tool called DECKARD and evaluated it on large code bases written in C and Java including the Linux kernel and JDK.  ...  In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for identifying similar subtrees and apply it to tree representations of source code.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Minya Dai for referring LSH to us and Alex Andoni for implementing LSH and providing us with its code.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icse.2007.30 dblp:conf/icse/JiangMSG07 fatcat:ykmldq37tvbm7m32gttm7z5z2q

Kitsune: Structurally Aware and Adaptable Plagiarism Detection

Zachary Monroe, Ajay Bansal
2021 2021 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)  
In addition, it provides an interface through which generic manipulations can be applied to the parse tree generated by Antlr.  ...  There are a number of plagiarism detection tools that attempt to encode knowledge about the programming languages they support in order to better detect obscured duplicates.  ...  In order to keep modifications to the representation simple, Neo4j, a graph database was used after parse tree generation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/fie49875.2021.9637364 fatcat:gqnhaiiu5revbatzdj2xzjt5dq

A Survey of Software Clone Detection Techniques

Abdullah Sheneamer, Jugal Kalita
2016 International Journal of Computer Applications  
data structures used.  ...  In this study, code clones, common types of clones, phases of clone detection, the state-ofthe-art in code clone detection techniques and tools, and challenges faced by clone detection techniques are discussed  ...  Previous plagiarism detection tools were only partially sufficient for academic use in finding plagiarized programs in programming classes.  ... 
doi:10.5120/ijca2016908896 fatcat:ogat75cqv5hzvofrctwxws53ki

Plagiarizing Smartphone Applications: Attack Strategies and Defense Techniques [chapter]

Rahul Potharaju, Andrew Newell, Cristina Nita-Rotaru, Xiangyu Zhang
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We propose three detection schemes that rely on syntactic fingerprinting to detect plagiarized applications under different levels of obfuscation used by the attacker.  ...  In this paper, we show how an attacker can launch malware onto a large number of smartphone users by plagiarizing Android applications and by using elements of social engineering to increase infection  ...  Deckard [24] , a state-of-the-art tree-based approach, extracts characteristics vectors from parse trees by counting q-level binary subtree patterns. Nguyen et al.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-28166-2_11 fatcat:hgcc3zjk2zbjrfy4oeucfclznu

Cyber Security Threats detection in Internet of Things using Deep Learning approach

Farhan Ullah, Hamad Naeem, Sohail Jabbar, Shehzad Khalid, Muhammad Ahsan Latif, Fadi Al-Turjman, Leonardo Mostarda
2019 IEEE Access  
Then, the deep learning approach is used to detect source code plagiarism. The dataset is collected from Google Code Jam (GCJ) to investigate software piracy.  ...  The TensorFlow deep neural network is proposed to identify pirated software using source code plagiarism.  ...  The syntax tree is used to capture the abstract and syntactic view of source code. A syntax tree from any source code is based on the parse tree.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2937347 fatcat:l5fhaizpbfee3gv4jlyhw7e2b4

Flowchart-Based Cross-Language Source Code Similarity Detection

Feng Zhang, Guofan Li, Cong Liu, Qian Song, Jianping Gou
2020 Scientific Programming  
Source code similarity detection has various applications in code plagiarism detection and software intellectual property protection.  ...  SCFC is language-independent, and therefore, it can be used as the intermediate structure for source code similarity detection.  ...  Tree-based detection approaches construct a parse tree [14, 15] or an abstract syntax tree (AST) [16] [17] [18] of the source code by lexical and syntax analysis. e parse tree focuses on syntax, while  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/8835310 fatcat:27f46djabzfipnezvpf5ufphhu

Scenario-Based Comparison of Clone Detection Techniques

C.K. Roy, J.R. Cordy
2008 2008 16th IEEE International Conference on Program Comprehension  
Over the last decade many techniques for software clone detection have been proposed.  ...  We begin with an overall survey based on criteria that capture the main features of detection techniques.  ...  We also thank the tool authors who provided useful answers to our queries, and the colleagues who assisted in tuning and clarifying this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpc.2008.42 dblp:conf/iwpc/RoyC08 fatcat:leyaqq5xc5asjp2arew2spwgu4

Scalable detection of semantic clones

Mark Gabel, Lingxiao Jiang, Zhendong Su
2008 Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Software engineering - ICSE '08  
These similar fragments, referred to as code clones, can be used to identify redundant code, locate bugs, or gain insight into program design.  ...  Existing scalable approaches to clone detection are limited to finding program fragments that are similar only in their contiguous syntax.  ...  For the application of tree-based clone detection, we use 1-level atomic patterns.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1368088.1368132 dblp:conf/icse/GabelJS08 fatcat:torpmu42sfa2rh545m7g5bizcu
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