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1918 Journal of the American Medical Association  
Zeuner used soap solu¬ tions in making a tuberculin, but here again the object was the complete solution of the tubercle bacillus, not an alteration of the rate of absorption.  ...  The possibility of giving the entire immunizing dose at one time is, for military purposes, an advantage in relieving the medical service from a not inconsiderable routine of injections and record work  ...  Blood is now distributed in the same manner and in the same amount as the glucose solution. This preparation of medium takes only a few minutes.  ... 
doi:10.1001/jama.1918.02600070001001 fatcat:qjooeyieuzhhdjatw4b6562txu

Hybrid GRASP Heuristics [chapter]

Paola Festa, Mauricio G. C. Resende
2009 Studies in Computational Intelligence  
Experience has shown that a crafted combination of concepts of different metaheuristics can result in robust combinatorial optimization schemes and produce higher solution quality than the individual metaheuristics  ...  This chapter gives an overview of different ways to hybridize GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures) to create new and more effective metaheuristics.  ...  Each GRASP iteration produces a sample solution from an unknown distribution of all obtainable results.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01085-9_4 fatcat:xmrpoff3hbhrvnhzgjvth46ioa

An Experimental Investigation of Iterated Local Search for Coloring Graphs [chapter]

Luis Paquete, Thomas Stützle
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In our research we investigated several perturbation schemes and present computational results on a widely used set of benchmarks problems, a sub-set of those available from the DIMACS benchmark suite.  ...  Graph coloring is a well known problem from graph theory that, when attacking it with local search algorithms, is typically treated as a series of constraint satisfaction problems: for a given number of  ...  The Community is not responsible for any use that might be made of data appearing in this publication.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-46004-7_13 fatcat:3l3m56ouwbfn7ib5olmtxun3nm

Grasping Complexity

A.N. Gorban, G.S. Yablonsky
2013 Computers and Mathematics with Applications  
We analyse the change of era in science, its reasons and main changes in scientific activity and give a brief review of the papers in the issue.  ...  This paper is Preface to the special issue "Grasping Complexity" of the journal "Computers and Mathematics with Applications".  ...  problem for Hilbert: ''As to the axioms of the theory of probabilities, it seems to me desirable that their logical investigation should be accompanied by a rigorous and satisfactory development of the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.camwa.2013.04.023 fatcat:2ephvto4ovfippyyuidyn36x3m

GRASP: basic components and enhancements

P. Festa, M. G. C. Resende
2010 Telecommunications Systems  
While, in general, the construction phase of GRASP is a randomized greedy algorithm, other types of construction procedures have been proposed.  ...  This chapter gives an overview of GRASP describing its basic components and enhancements to the basic procedure, including reactive GRASP and intensification strategies.  ...  [7] have shown experimentally that the solution times for GRASP also have this property, showing that they fit a two-parameter exponential distribution.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11235-010-9289-z fatcat:7ethxsisbrgpzjptcmamnfeasa

Inference of Upcoming Human Grasp Using EMG During Reach-to-Grasp Movement [article]

Mo Han, Mehrshad Zandigohar, Sezen Yagmur Gunay, Gunar Schirner, Deniz Erdogmus
2022 arXiv   pre-print
A major challenge of the real-time detection of human grasp intent is the identification of dynamic EMG from hand movements.  ...  All experiments were evaluated in a real-time style with the performance transitions over time presented.  ...  The time point when the probability curves of grasp gesture and rest gesture intersect was t i = −729ms, and the distance from the probability peak of grasp gesture to the top competitor probability was  ... 
arXiv:2104.09627v2 fatcat:hky3le2aovaeldjv4bchq4b6ly

An Experimental Investigation of Insight in Common Ravens (Corvus corax)

Bernd Heinrich
1995 The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology  
the bill while simultaneously applying pressure with the foot onto it, then reaching down again to repeat the cycle six to eight times in that precise order before finally securing a piece of dried meat  ...  Because one cannot examine directly the subjective experience of an animal, demonstrating insight is highly problematical.  ...  The seemingly obvious solution of examining one bird at a time was not used because isolated birds were even more hesitant to approach strings than birds in groups.)  ... 
doi:10.2307/4089030 fatcat:72ax3l74nrczpjesg76aydytci

Inference of Upcoming Human Grasp Using EMG During Reach-to-Grasp Movement

Mo Han, Mehrshad Zandigohar, Sezen Yağmur Günay, Gunar Schirner, Deniz Erdoğmuş
2022 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
A major challenge to the real-time detection of human grasp intent is the identification of dynamic EMG from hand movements.  ...  All experiments were evaluated in a real-time style with the performance transitions presented over time.  ...  In those figures, we show the predicted probabilities and the classification accuracy on the validation set, where each time point represents an EMG time window.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2022.849991 pmid:35720725 pmcid:PMC9204158 fatcat:5kdvsn42nndbtcyhhcj6r74bsm

Conformity and Reciprocity in the 'Exclusion Game': An Experimental Investigation

Lorenzo Sacconi, Marco Faillo
2005 Social Science Research Network  
In this paper we design an experiment for preliminary exploration of the empirical validity of the conformist preferences model, applying it to a simple non cooperative game (the Exclusion Game) meant  ...  The principle moreover is seen as resulting from a (possibly hypothetical) contract between the agents involved in the interaction in an ex-ante phase.  ...  distribution in each state of the world.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.755745 fatcat:smws24ei7jbopfxn2qjxcivmjq

Voter turnout as a participation game: An experimental investigation

Arthur Schram, Joep Sonnemans
1996 International Journal of Game Theory  
In case of an equal number of discs in both groups the observer randomly draws a yellow or blue ball from an urn (with a probability of 89 either way) to determine which group receives a payoff of f 2.50  ...  It is assumed that each player has an idea as to the distribution of d i accross individuals; this is represented by the distribution function F,(d).  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf02425263 fatcat:f3oyxg655nhotnii6qgmqa7ktq

Coalition Structure Generation with GRASP [chapter]

Nicola Di Mauro, Teresa M. A. Basile, Stefano Ferilli, Floriana Esposito
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present a greedy adaptive search procedure (GRASP) to efficiently search the space of coalition structures in order to find an optimal one.  ...  In order to find the optimal solution in a combinatorial optimization problem it is theoretically possible to enumerate the solutions and evaluate each.  ...  As reported in Figure 2 , where the time in seconds is plotted in a log scale, GRASP-CSG outperforms both DP and IDP for all the distributions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15431-7_12 fatcat:xpmwdztnfbavxaerr5os7qfhhe

Grasp: An Annotated Bibliography [chapter]

Paola Festa, Mauricio G.C. Resende
2002 Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series  
This paper is an annotated bibliography of the GRASP literature from 1989 to 1999.  ...  optimum in the neighborhood of the constructed solution is sought.  ...  Each GRASP iteration produces a sample solution from an unknown distribution of all obtainable results.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-1507-4_15 fatcat:kvaokik4m5a2bezgzzcfaqjbui

Efficient parallel cooperative implementations of GRASP heuristics

Celso C. Ribeiro, Isabel Rosseti
2007 Parallel Computing  
Numerical results illustrating the effectiveness of the approach are reported. We comment in detail the implementation strategies that take most advantage of the algorithm structure.  ...  We propose a parallel cooperative strategy for the implementation of the GRASP metaheuristic and we illustrate it with a GRASP with path-relinking heuristic for the 2-path network design problem.  ...  [2] have shown experimentally that the solution times to find a target solution value with a GRASP heuristic satisfy Proposition 2, i.e. they fit a two-parameter exponential distribution.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.parco.2006.11.007 fatcat:53hzt6durrfatehdx2nzii2z2y

Learning how to grasp objects

Annalisa Barla, Luca Baldassarre, Nicoletta Noceti, Francesca Odone
2010 The European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks  
This paper deals with the problem of estimating an appropriate hand posture to grasp an object, from 2D object's visual cues in a many-to-many (objects,grasp) configuration.  ...  An extensive experimental evaluation on a publicly available dataset of visuo-motor data reports very promising results and encourages further investigations.  ...  Assuming that the data is sampled i.i.d. on R p × R d according to an unknown probability distribution P (x, y), ideally the best estimator minimizes the prediction error, measured by a loss function V  ... 
dblp:conf/esann/BarlaBNO10 fatcat:m5jtha767zfyrgwqpszvdzyusu

GRASP for set packing problems

Xavier Delorme, Xavier Gandibleux, Joaquin Rodriguez
2004 European Journal of Operational Research  
These improvements include a self-tuning procedure (using reactive GRASP), an intensification procedure (using path relinking) and a procedure involving the diversification of the selection (using a learning  ...  We investigated several construction phases, and evaluated improvements based on advanced strategies.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the anonymous referees whose comments on an earlier version of the paper were very helpful.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0377-2217(03)00263-7 fatcat:blbqygwecbek3p3l6fzrgn4cu4
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