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6G Networks Orientation by Quantum Mechanics

Paulo Sergio Rufino Henrique, Ramjee Prasad
2022 Journal of ICT Standardization  
Most likely that QaaS will become available for commercial purposes by the hyperscalers, the ones able to cope with the total cost of ownership (TCO) of these state of art technologies.  ...  Thus, this paper presents a holistic overview of Quantum as a service (QaaS) as a future deployment in the 6G architecture, but only if quantum technologies can be mastered in the next upcoming years.  ...  The reason for this assumption is because they will be the ones capable of enduring a total cost of ownership (TCO) to continue investing in R&D and scaling up for critical applications.  ... 
doi:10.13052/jicts2245-800x.1013 fatcat:6agvxac5hvhildyvtvywseqioa

Beyond private 5G networks: applications, architectures, operator models and technological enablers

Mickael Maman, Emilio Calvanese-Strinati, Lam Ngoc Dinh, Thomas Haustein, Wilhelm Keusgen, Sven Wittig, Mathis Schmieder, Sergio Barbarossa, Mattia Merluzzi, Francesca Costanzo, Stefania Sardellitti, Henrik Klessig (+11 others)
2021 EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking  
We apply the proposed operator models to different network architecture options and to a selection of relevant use cases offering mixed private–public network operator governance and ownership.  ...  AbstractPrivate networks will play a key role in 5G and beyond to enable smart factories with the required better deployment, operation and flexible usage of available resource and infrastructure. 5G private  ...  The contributors of Sect. 2 are Alpha Networks (ANI), Athonet (ATH), Chunghwa Telecom (CHT), ITRI and Bosch authors. The latter two mainly wrote this section. HHI authors wrote Sect. 3.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13638-021-02067-2 pmid:34899876 pmcid:PMC8642759 fatcat:hs4jnahzzbhozaq7amhp5kcfam

Service aware 6G: An intelligent and open network based on convergence of communication, computing and caching

Yiqing Zhou, Ling Liu, Lu Wang, Ning Hui, Xinyu Cui, Jie Wu, Yan Peng, Yanli Qi, Chengwen Xing
2020 Digital Communications and Networks  
Hence, in addition to enhancing its capability by 10-100 times compared with 5G, 6G should also be intelligent and open to adapt to the ever-changing services in the IoT, which requires a convergence of  ...  From the detailed analysis of these 3C-based technologies presented in this paper, we can see that although they are promising to enable an intelligent and open 6G, more efforts are needed to realize the  ...  Targeting at 6G, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) established a study group for the network 2030 [1] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.dcan.2020.05.003 fatcat:rhe4xpz3rrhulb56dygmrmsfdq

6G Architectural Trends and Enablers

Mårten Ericsson, Massimo Condoluci, Patrik Rugeland, Stefan Wänstedt, Mehdi S.H. Abad, Omer Haliloglu, Merve Saimler, Luca Feltrin
2021 Zenodo  
current and future, while minimizing total cost of ownership (TCO).  ...  In this paper we address the important task of reevaluating and evolving the network architecture, to ensure that performance, e.g., data rates, coverage, energy efficiency, will support use cases, both  ...  at the same time being flexible to be able to support use cases minimizing total cost of ownership (TCO).  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5786279 fatcat:w56k7chl45azdbrlb5bpqp3nju

Toward Native Artificial Intelligence in 6G Networks: System Design, Architectures, and Paradigms [article]

Jianjun Wu, Rongpeng Li, Xueli An, Chenghui Peng, Zhe Liu, Jon Crowcroft, Honggang Zhang
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Apparently, the intelligent inclusion vision produces far-reaching influence on the corresponding network architecture design in 6G and deserves a clean-slate rethink.  ...  In this article, we propose an end-to-end system architecture design scope for 6G, and talk about the necessity to incorporate an independent data plane and a novel intelligent plane with particular emphasis  ...  From the perspective of mobile network evolution history as shown in Figure 1 , the provided services intrinsically determinate the native architecture, such as a voice-centric network architecture in  ... 
arXiv:2103.02823v1 fatcat:6r7v223p7bb3rkocj5vwapkopa

Open or not open: Are conventional radio access networks more secure and trustworthy than Open-RAN? [article]

Felix Klement, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Vincent Ulitzsch, Juliane Krämer, Slawomir Stanczak, Zoran Utkovski, Igor Bjelakovic, Gerhard Wunder
2022 arXiv   pre-print
This will lead to RANs for current 5G networks, but especially for future 6G networks, evolving from the current highly integrated, vendor-specific RAN architecture towards disaggregated architectures  ...  The Open RAN architecture is a promising and future-oriented architecture. It is intended to open up the radio access network (RAN) and enable more innovation and competition in the market.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors acknowledge the financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany in the programme of "Souverän. Digital. Vernetzt."  ... 
arXiv:2204.12227v3 fatcat:boqxzayaave7hkk6voeja3ncn4

White Paper on Business of 6G [article]

Seppo Yrjola, Petri Ahokangas, Marja Matinmikko-Blue, Risto Jurva, Vivek Kant, Pasi Karppinen, Marianne Kinnula, Harilaos Koumaras, Mika Rantakokko, Volker Ziegler, Abhishek Thakur, Hans-Jurgen Zepernick
2020 arXiv   pre-print
This research adopts a qualitative scenario planning method and portrays three scenario themes resulting in a total of 12 scenarios for the futures of the 6G business.  ...  Developing products, services and vertical applications for the future digitized society in the 6G era requires a multidisciplinary approach and a re-definition of how we create, deliver and consume network  ...  These networks will be put together with a public-private-personal ownership funding model with a view to sustainable growth and the use of digital infrastructure.  ... 
arXiv:2005.06400v2 fatcat:vd7l7w4drfesloz5lmcudzqo4a

Sustainability as a Challenge and Driver for Novel Ecosystemic 6G Business Scenarios

Seppo Yrjölä, Petri Ahokangas, Marja Matinmikko-Blue
2020 Sustainability  
The paper portrays four scenario themes and a total of 16 alternative future scenarios for the business of 6G.  ...  This paper discusses the unprecedented opportunities in the future 6G ecosystem specifically from the business perspective and applies a futures-oriented scenario planning method utilized in two strategy  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of the members of 6G Flagship's white paper expert group on Business of 6G: Jurva, R.; Kant V.; Karppinen, P.; Kinnula, M.; Koumaras  ... 
doi:10.3390/su12218951 fatcat:ul33mclcjvgjxjpopbbbe4hka4

Wireless Terrestrial Backhaul for 6G Remote Access: Challenges and Low Power Solutions

Harri Saarnisaari, Abdelaali Chaoub, Marjo Heikkilä, Amit Singhal, Vimal Bhatia
2021 Frontiers in Communications and Networks  
In the end, we propose directions for research and deployment for an inclusive connectivity as a part of future 6G networks.  ...  backhaul from the sufficient-data-rate and solar powering perspective.  ...  of macro-cells at 33% lower overall cost of ownership.  ... 
doi:10.3389/frcmn.2021.710781 fatcat:5p4vguxzo5awtck53notl3swze

Towards Large-Scale and Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing in COVID-19 pandemic: A Blockchain Perspective

Wenzhe Lv, Sheng Wu, Chunxiao Jiang, Yuanhao Cui, Xuesong Qiu, Yan Zhang
2020 IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering  
As a result, connections between personal identity and the ownership of on-chain location information are decoupled.  ...  Meanwhile, the owner of the on-chain location data can still claim its ownership without revealing the private key to anyone else. 2) An artificial potential field-based incentive allocation mechanism  ...  As a benefit from the zero-knowledge proof technique, a user could claim data ownership without revealing the private key to anyone else.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tnse.2020.3030925 pmid:35582326 pmcid:PMC8905609 fatcat:oagboccewvct7amrb2opax4nom

Value Creation and Capture from Technology Innovation in the 6G Era

S. Yrjola, P. Ahokangas, M. Matinmikko-Blue
2022 IEEE Access  
In the sixth generation of mobile communication networks (6G) era, in which the convergence of wireless and Internet technologies will drive the digital economy and automation across industries, the focus  ...  The results of the technology value analysis show the emerging 6G business to be an oblique hybrid of vertical and horizontal business models and characterise the future 6G networks as a general-purpose  ...  Total cost of ownership competitiveness.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2022.3149590 fatcat:4auxasvyefdffdejaycpq6izge

Survey on Network Slicing for Internet of Things Realization in 5G Networks

Shalitha Wijethilaka, Madhusanka Liyanage
2021 IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials  
In this survey, we present a comprehensive analysis of the exploitation of network slicing in IoT realisation.  ...  Therefore, network slicing is also a key enabler of realisation of IoT in 5G. Network slicing can satisfy the various networking demands by heterogeneous IoT applications via dedicated slices.  ...  The Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and Return On Investment (ROI) of network slicing in smart grids have been analysed from the operator's perspective.  ... 
doi:10.1109/comst.2021.3067807 fatcat:nryzn43ptffn3mhsp2seswzvke

Key Wearable Device Technologies Parameters for Innovative Healthcare Delivery in B5G Network: A Review

Simeon Okechukwu Ajakwe, Cosmas Ifeanyi Nwakanma, Dong-Seong Kim, Jae-Min Lee
2022 IEEE Access  
A total of 2751 articles pooled from 5 digital libraries were screened and 16 were selected for this review using PRISMA.  ...  Despite the boom in the wearable market and significant improvement in communication technologies, the translation of wearable data from clinical trials to valuable assets for practical medical application  ...  Also, with an energy-efficient B5G network, it is guaranteed that there will be a reduction in the total cost of ownership [58] which is a critical cost component in determining the overall cost per  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2022.3173643 fatcat:ysikyzcw3zb4ziq5ctjvmcilqi

"5G & BEYOND": GOVERNANCE, GLOBAL POLICY PERSPECTIVES, AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS

Prafulla Kumar Padhi
2020 Zenodo  
The sequential methodology approach provides a perspective on the "5G & Beyond" exploratory scenario, strategies, geotypes, infrastructure sharing, cost modeling, network dimensioning and related inputs  ...  The aim of this research is to confabulate "5G & Beyond" wireless technologies trends,innovations and development, network deployment, governance and geopolitics, global spectrum policy perspectives for  ...  This demographic segment that has significantly lower levels of mobile ownership. As per GSMA, the mobile industry made a total contribution of 110 billion USD to the SSA economy.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3677286 fatcat:gigdtbe52ngxzcyxzqp3qqsokm

6G Architecture to Connect the Worlds

Volker Ziegler, Harish Viswanathan, Hannu Flinck, Marco Hoffmann, Vilho Raisanen, Kimmo Hatonen
2020 IEEE Access  
Ease of introduction of new services and new types of devices with different radio capabilities and dedicated SW stacks will enhance time to market and network total cost of ownership. B.  ...  Examples of sub-networks that will benefit from 6G performance enhancement will range from in-body subnetwork, in-robot to in-car and sub-network of swarm of drones.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3025032 fatcat:y32rfu5ypfg7zh5onziafyi664
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