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Prime normal form and equivalence of simple grammars

2006
*
Theoretical Computer Science
*

Our algorithm computes a canonical representation

doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2006.07.021
fatcat:x5smhvnbzfbgfd4n7dbv2bucmm
*of*a*simple*language, converting its arbitrary*simple**grammar*into*prime**normal**form*(PNF); a*simple**grammar*is in PNF if all its nonterminals define*primes*... We also improve the complexity*of*testing the*equivalence**of**simple**grammars*. The best previously known algorithm for this problem worked in O(n 13 ) time. ... Acknowledgment The research*of*the first three authors was supported by NSERC*and*the research*of*the fourth author was supported by the Grants KBN 4T11C04425*and*ITR-CCR-0313219. ...##
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Prime Normal Form and Equivalence of Simple Grammars
[chapter]

2006
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Our algorithm computes a canonical representation

doi:10.1007/11605157_7
fatcat:qg2sll637rg7fkmyzk3ijpqu4e
*of*a*simple*language, converting its arbitrary*simple**grammar*into*prime**normal**form*(PNF); a*simple**grammar*is in PNF if all its nonterminals define*primes*... We also improve the complexity*of*testing the*equivalence**of**simple**grammars*. The best previously known algorithm for this problem worked in O(n 13 ) time. ... Acknowledgment The research*of*the first three authors was supported by NSERC*and*the research*of*the fourth author was supported by the Grants KBN 4T11C04425*and*ITR-CCR-0313219. ...##
###
Decidability results in automata and process theory
[chapter]

1996
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

*simple*if the

*grammar*is in Greibach

*normal*

*form*. / \ Example 1 Consider the

*grammar*G = ({X,Y}, {a,b},P,X) where P con-% / sists

*of*the rules This guarded

*grammar*generates the (context-free) language ... A

*grammar*is guarded iff each

*of*its production rules is

*of*the

*form*X --+ ac~ where a E T. If moreover each c~ E V* then the

*grammar*is in Greibach

*normal*

*form*(GNF). ... We would like to thank the organiser

*of*the worksho p series Graham Birtwistle for allowing us the opportunity

*and*the motivation for producing the notes, as well as a forum in which to present the material ...

##
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A Note on the Generative Power of Some Simple Variants of Context-Free Grammars Regulated by Context Conditions
[chapter]

2009
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Finally, this paper also presents some

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-00982-2_47
fatcat:ioduiodgzndoxi4oqqyrgs2uha
*normal**form*results, an overview*of*known results,*and*unsolved problems. ... forbidding strings) where permitting*and*forbidding strings*of*each production are*of*length no more than one,*and**of**simple*semi-conditional*grammars*where, in addition, no production has attached both ... Specifically, it has proved that In addition, it has also presented some*normal**form*results*and*an overview*of*known results, demonstrated the generative power*of**simple*semi-conditional*grammars**of*degree ...##
###
A polynomial-time algorithm for deciding bisimulation equivalence of normed Basic Parallel Processes

1996
*
Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
*

A polynomial-time algorithm is presented for deciding bisimulation

doi:10.1017/s0960129500000992
fatcat:tqtfyn5prfcndcw34w7lnq2egq
*equivalence**of*so-called Basic Parallel Processes: multisets*of*elementary processes combined by a commutative parallelcomposition operator ... Theorem 2 Suppose the set Mon V*of*processes is de ned by a normed, context-free*grammar*in Greibach*normal**form*. ... Notation*and*basic facts Let be a context-free*grammar*in Greibach*normal**form*with variables V = fX 1 ; : : : ; X n g*and*terminals A. 1 For reasons that will become apparent presently, we sometimes ...##
###
A polynomial algorithm for deciding bisimilarity of normed context-free processes

1996
*
Theoretical Computer Science
*

As a corollary, we have a polynomial algorithm for the

doi:10.1016/0304-3975(95)00064-x
fatcat:5vln2w27gfcbfedxln5zxxexb4
*equivalence*problem for*simple**grammars*. 4 Recall that a*grammar*is in Greibach*normal**form*if the right-hand side*of*every production consists*of*... a proof*of**equivalence**and*validates this proof in polynomial time using oracles freely answering questions which are in NP. ... A*simple*gr~mur is a context-free*grammar*in Greibach*normal**form*such that for any pair (X,a) consisting*of*a variable X*and*terminal a, there is at most one production*of*the*form*X + aa. ...##
###
Balanced Grammars and Their Languages
[chapter]

2002
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Next, the set

doi:10.1007/3-540-45711-9_1
fatcat:n3k5xev62beslascwxvengli5e
*of*right-hand sides*of*productions may be an infinite regular language. XML-*grammars*are a special kind*of*balanced*grammars*. This paper studies balanced*grammars**and*their languages. ... It is shown that there exists a unique minimal balanced*grammar**equivalent*to a given one. Next, balanced languages are characterized through a property*of*their syntactic congruence. ... Corollary 4. 2 . 2 If a context-free*grammar*is balanced (pure balanced, in Greibach*normal**form*, in two-sided Greibach*normal**form*, is finite), there exists an*equivalent*codeterministic*grammar*that ...##
###
Reducing Simple Grammars: Exponential Against Highly-Polynomial Time in Practice
[chapter]

2006
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

We present a comparison

doi:10.1007/11812128_10
fatcat:dzfsb5wh2vchfiebs24lb45ujm
*and*experimental analysis*of*the best-known algorithms for the*grammar*reduction. ... The*simple**grammar*reduction is an important component in the implementation*of*Concatenation State Machines (a hardware version*of*stateless pushdown automata designed for wire-speed network packet classification ... A*grammar*G = (Σ, N, P ) is a*simple**grammar*if G is a Greibach*Normal**Form**grammar*such that whenever A → a α 1*and*A → a α 2 , for a same a ∈ Σ, then α 1 = α 2 . ...##
###
Page 3211 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 80H
[page]

1980
*
Mathematical Reviews
*

Various well-known families

*of*languages are obtained (for example, the context sensitive, the EOL,*and*ETOL). Some*normal**form*results are derived,*and*closure*and*decidability results established. ... From the introduction: “The aim*of*this paper is to prove that the system*of**simple*graph*grammars*described in notes*of*E. Denent*and*H. Ehrig is complete. ...##
###
Fast equivalence-checking for normed context-free processes

2010
*
Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science
*

It also improves the previously known complexity O(n 6 polylog(n))

doi:10.4230/lipics.fsttcs.2010.260
dblp:conf/fsttcs/CzerwinskiL10
fatcat:itqdcepqnrfa7eejwh36ngbo2m
*of*the equality problem for*simple**grammars*. ... Bisimulation*equivalence*is decidable in polynomial time over normed graphs generated by a context-free*grammar*. ... We are very grateful to Wojtek Rytter*and*Sibylle Fröschle for many helpful discussions. ...##
###
Learning executable semantic parsers for natural language understanding

2016
*
Communications of the ACM
*

We will see that semantic parsing is a rich fusion

doi:10.1145/2866568
fatcat:lcl6pogzmfazdma4wmt5rnebai
*of*the logical*and*the statistical world,*and*that this fusion will play an integral role in the future*of*natural language understanding systems. ... Semantic parsers map natural language into logical*forms*, the classic representation for many important linguistic phenomena. ... Formally, the*grammar*is a set*of*rules*of*the*form*α ⇒ β. 1 Here is a*simple**grammar*for our running example: (R1)*prime*⇒ NP[*primes*] (R2) 10 ⇒ NP[10] (R3) less than NP[z] ⇒ QP[(−∞, z)] (R4) NP[z1] ...##
###
New evidence of a rhythmic priming effect that enhances grammaticality judgments in children

2018
*
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
*

No such effect

doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2018.04.007
pmid:29778278
pmcid:PMC5986615
fatcat:m3cymnekfjae7i6mx4heoqd3pm
*of*rhythmic*priming*was found in two non-linguistic control tasks, suggesting a neural overlap between rhythm processing*and*mechanisms recruited during*grammar*processing. ... The present study aimed to understand the potential influence*of*musical rhythmic*priming*on subsequent spoken*grammar*task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers*of*... Use*of*REDCap was made possible by Vanderbilt CTSA grant UL1 TR000445 from NCATS/NIH. ...##
###
Learning Executable Semantic Parsers for Natural Language Understanding
[article]

2016
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

We will see that semantic parsing is a rich fusion

arXiv:1603.06677v1
fatcat:p4dwgeh5onfr7kd6mk53mls7au
*of*the logical*and*the statistical world,*and*that this fusion will play an integral role in the future*of*natural language understanding systems. ... Semantic parsers map natural language into logical*forms*, the classic representation for many important linguistic phenomena. ... Formally, the*grammar*is a set*of*rules*of*the*form*α ⇒ β. 1 Here is a*simple**grammar*for our running example: (R1)*prime*⇒ NP[*primes*] (R2) 10 ⇒ NP[10] (R3) less than NP[z] ⇒ QP[(−∞, z)] (R4) NP[z1] ...##
###
Concatenation State Machines and Simple Functions
[chapter]

2005
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

We introduce a class

doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30500-2_11
fatcat:y3x2uy5vefhznfhl7756wk4or4
*of*deterministic push-down transducers called concatenation state machine (CSM)*and*we study its semantic domain which is a class*of*parial mappings over finitely generated free monoids ... , called*simple*functions. ... The resulting system*of*equations corresponds to a context-free*grammar*which is a*simple**grammar*(i.e., LL(1)*grammar*under Greibach*normal**form*, [1] [2] [3] ). ...##
###
Even linear simple matrix languages: formal language properties and grammatical inference

2002
*
Theoretical Computer Science
*

even linear

doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(01)00313-9
fatcat:mylev7nygnct7curhqp5nccl4e
*simple*matrix*grammars*as basic*and*uniform learning target. ... Moreover, we investigate formal language properties*of*even linear*simple*matrix languages*and*related language classes. ... Stephan,*and*Y. Takada. The talk at COCOON'99 conference [19] (presenting the grammatical inference part*of*this paper) was given by K. Reinhardt. ...
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