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Primary hand motor representation areas in healthy children, preadolescents, adolescents, and adults

Laura Säisänen, Mervi Könönen, Eini Niskanen, Timo Lakka, Niina Lintu, Ritva Vanninen, Petro Julkunen, Sara Määttä
2020 NeuroImage  
The development of the organization of the motor representation areas in children and adolescents is not well-known.  ...  Similarly, there was less overlap between hand and forearm muscles representations in children compared to adults (p<0.001).  ...  The funding sources had no involvement in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117702 pmid:33385558 fatcat:btfwx75osjc7bhzfaxsxgobkxi

Development of corticospinal motor excitability and cortical silent period from mid-childhood to adulthood – a navigated TMS study

Laura Säisänen, Petro Julkunen, Timo Lakka, Virpi Lindi, Mervi Könönen, Sara Määttä
2018 Neurophysiologie clinique  
METHODS Both hemispheres of healthy right-handed children (6-9 years, n=10), preadolescents (10-12 years, n=13), adolescents (14-17 years, n=12) and young adults (22-34 years, n=12) of both genders were  ...  The optimal cortical representation site and resting motor threshold (rMT) were determined for the abductor pollicis brevis muscle.  ...  The authors wish to thank all subjects for participating in the study. We thank  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neucli.2017.11.004 pmid:29274767 fatcat:cqv2nxh3rjgwjo7jdyx4untnyu

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhanced Motor Learning on Robotic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Maps in Children

Adrianna Giuffre, Ephrem Zewdie, James G. Wrightson, Lauran Cole, Helen L. Carlson, Hsing-Ching Kuo, Ali Babwani, Adam Kirton
2021 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Primary mapping outcomes were volume (mm2/mV) and area (mm2). Secondary outcomes were centre of gravity (COG, mm) and hotspot magnitude (mV).  ...  Large effects on map area and volume were not observed while changes in COG may occur.  ...  in healthy adults and children (Nitsche and Paulus, 2000; Nitsche et al., 2003; Ciechanski and Kirton, 2017; Cole et al., 2018) and enlarged motor map representations following motor performance alone  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2021.747840 pmid:34690726 pmcid:PMC8526891 fatcat:kf7ldkkyg5eoln6vm7zxfaiegm

Functional and structural asymmetry in primary motor cortex in Asperger syndrome: a navigated TMS and imaging study

Laura Säisänen, Sara Määttä, Petro Julkunen, Eini Niskanen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Heidi Gröhn, Samuli Kemppainen, Timo A. Lakka, Niina Lintu, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Ritva Vanninen, Ismo Makkonen (+1 others)
2019 Brain Topography  
With nTMS, we found less focused cortical representation areas of distinct hand muscles in AS.  ...  in manual dexterity and other motor functions commonly encountered in children with AS.  ...  In healthy adults, the muscle representation areas of hand, wrist and shoulder have been shown to overlap substantially and to be of equal size even though the locations of their optimal sites or CoGs  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10548-019-00704-0 fatcat:5pp6m77lu5gnham5pn3okdkl64

A Narrative Review of School-Based Physical Activity for Enhancing Cognition and Learning: The Importance of Relevancy and Integration

Myrto Foteini Mavilidi, Margina Ruiter, Mirko Schmidt, Anthony D Okely, Sofie Loyens, Paul Chandler, Fred Paas
2018 Frontiers in Psychology  
Engaging in regular physical activity can have substantial cognitive and academic benefits for children, and is generally promoted for its beneficial effects on children's physical and mental health.  ...  In this narrative review, we describe these two separately evolved schools of thought, highlighting their differences and commonalities.  ...  Caterina Pesce and Amie Wallman-Jone for the fruitful feedback and proofreading the manuscript respectively.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02079 pmid:30464752 pmcid:PMC6234858 fatcat:umbtff2zfzfrdncdmfo332c4re

Training-Induced Neural Plasticity in Youth: A Systematic Review of Structural and Functional MRI Studies

Olga Tymofiyeva, Robert Gaschler
2021 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Here, we systematically review MRI-based evidence of training-induced neural plasticity in children and adolescents. A total of 71 articles were included in the review.  ...  Significant changes in brain activation, structure, microstructure, and structural and functional connectivity were reported with different types of trainings in the majority (87%) of the studies.  ...  AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS OT and RG formulated the research question. OT conducted literature search and data extraction, and RG supervised this process. OT and RG wrote and revised the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.497245 pmid:33536885 pmcid:PMC7848153 fatcat:oebewauzhfa3zdlil3xo3rnoo4

The relationship between white matter microstructure, cardiovascular fitness, gross motor skills, and neurocognitive functioning in children

Anna Meijer, Petra J W Pouwels, Joanne Smith, Chris Visscher, Roel J Bosker, Esther Hartman, Jaap Oosterlaan, Marsh Königs
2021 Journal of Neuroscience Research  
This study investigates the role of white matter microstructure in the relationship of both cardiovascular fitness and gross motor skills with neurocognitive functioning in healthy children.  ...  Recent evidence indicates that both cardiovascular fitness and gross motor skill performance are related to enhanced neurocognitive functioning in children by influencing brain structure and functioning  ...  However, the available studies show that higher cardiovascular fitness is related to greater FA in healthy preadolescent children (Chaddock-Heyman et al., 2014) and greater FA and lower AD and RD in  ... 
doi:10.1002/jnr.24851 pmid:34019710 pmcid:PMC8453576 fatcat:oqsiptabjjgh3fhy2cnvshynba

Evaluation of the Feasibility of International Growth Standards for School-Aged Children and Adolescents

Nancy F. Butte, Cutberto Garza, Mercedes de Onis
2006 Food and Nutrition Bulletin  
Diane Reese and Brenda Denzler for their assistance in editing the manuscript, and we are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers.  ...  Onderzoek (TNO) for his cooperation in this process.  ...  Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children.  ... 
doi:10.1177/15648265060274s501 pmid:17361654 fatcat:arq2t4aiefervjcijhsc2w7mly

Relationship of temporal lobe volumes to neuropsychological test performance in healthy children

Carolyn T. Wells, E. Mark Mahone, Melissa A. Matson, Wendy R. Kates, Trisha Hay, Alena Horska
2008 Brain and Cognition  
; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition-PPVT-III) in 48 healthy children ages 5-18 years.  ...  Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain volumes and neurobehavioral function in healthy children.  ...  This study was supported by NIH grants R01 NS042851 and M01 RR 00052.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2008.04.004 pmid:18513844 pmcid:PMC2592537 fatcat:y35jo4oxxvfajh46jradar6xji

The mirror mechanism and its potential role in autism spectrum disorder

2012 Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology  
ASD Autism spectrum disorder The mirror mechanism allows the direct translation of a perceived (seen, felt, heard) action into the same motor representation of its related goal.  ...  In this review, we address the theoretical issues underlying the social impairments in ASD and discuss them in relation to the cognitive role of the mirror mechanism.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the EU grants TESIS and Rossi to VG, the European Research Council Grant CogSystem to MJR, and Fondazione Monte to CB.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04398.x pmid:22924341 fatcat:cxlabj7qejdell6fyy3icc3h6i

Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function

Gerry Leisman, Ahmed Moustafa, Tal Shafir
2016 Frontiers in Public Health  
In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history.  ...  In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output.  ...  FiGURe 2 | 2 Motor network connections during unimanual hand movements in (A) healthy individuals and (B) significant differences in functional coupling during affected (right) hand movement in individuals  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00094 pmid:27252937 pmcid:PMC4879139 fatcat:5slkniq4pvalviygipvwmmg27i

Effects of physical activity on children's executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise

John R. Best
2010 Developmental Review  
Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence.  ...  Finally, these experimental findings are placed within the larger context of known links between action and cognition in infancy and early childhood, and the clinical and practical implications of this  ...  , Lindqvist, Bergman, Bohlin, & Klingberg, 2008) , older children and adolescents (Klingberg, Forssberg, & Westerberg, 2002; Klingberg et al., 2005) , and adults Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides, & Perrig  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.dr.2010.08.001 pmid:21818169 pmcid:PMC3147174 fatcat:5jlkb72okrhoboiy5ls2lxcdfy

Developmental Tuning and Decay in Senescence of Oscillations Linking the Corticospinal System

S. Graziadio, A. Basu, L. Tomasevic, F. Zappasodi, F. Tecchio, J. A. Eyre
2010 Journal of Neuroscience  
In children, CMC was smaller and less stationary in amplitude and frequency than in adults.  ...  in children (4 -12 years of age), young adults (20 -35 years of age), and elderly adults (Ͼ55 years of age).  ...  Conclusions We have previously proposed that representation of the hand in the human primary sensorimotor cortex is reflected in a "frequency coding" as well as in areal-based, somatotopic representation  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5621-09.2010 pmid:20220000 fatcat:iqexf6goovh5boy775xceubv5e

Neural representation of expected value in the adolescent brain

E. Barkley-Levenson, A. Galvan
2014 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
This work was supported in part by startup funds (to A.G.) and by a UCLA Translational Neuroscience of Drug Addiction Predoctoral Fellowship (to E.B.-L.).  ...  We thank participating families and helpful comments from members of the A.G. Laboratory and Craig R. Fox.  ...  Nineteen healthy right-handed adult participants (ages 25-30, mean age 27.9 y, SD = 1.9 y; 11 female) and 22 healthy right-handed adolescent participants (ages 13-17, mean age 15.6 y, SD = 1.4 y; 11 female  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1319762111 pmid:24474790 pmcid:PMC3910617 fatcat:xi6vurtq3bgrvlja3p5ft3czi4

A time of change: Behavioral and neural correlates of adolescent sensitivity to appetitive and aversive environmental cues

Leah H. Somerville, Rebecca M. Jones, B.J. Casey
2010 Brain and Cognition  
We highlight empirical work in humans and animals that addresses the interactions between these neural systems in adolescents relative to children and adults, and propose a neurobiological model that may  ...  account for the nonlinear changes in adolescent behavior.  ...  Sackler family, and the Dewitt-Wallace Fund.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.07.003 pmid:19695759 pmcid:PMC2814936 fatcat:pzajwkbedvfuvixc3zg3fekahi
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