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Preserving Statistical Validity in Adaptive Data Analysis [article]

Cynthia Dwork and Vitaly Feldman and Moritz Hardt and Toniann Pitassi and Omer Reingold and Aaron Roth
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In this work we initiate a principled study of how to guarantee the validity of statistical inference in adaptive data analysis.  ...  However, there is a fundamental disconnect between the theoretical results and the practice of data analysis: the theory of statistical inference assumes a fixed collection of hypotheses to be tested,  ...  Further Developments: Our work has attracted substantial interest to the problem of statistical validity in adaptive data analysis and its relationship to differential privacy.  ... 
arXiv:1411.2664v3 fatcat:q2oslwlcx5co7fnjdybn4n5pse

Preserving Statistical Validity in Adaptive Data Analysis

Cynthia Dwork, Vitaly Feldman, Moritz Hardt, Toniann Pitassi, Omer Reingold, Aaron Leon Roth
2015 Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Annual ACM on Symposium on Theory of Computing - STOC '15  
In this work we initiate a principled study of how to guarantee the validity of statistical inference in adaptive data analysis.  ...  However, there is a fundamental disconnect between the theoretical results and the practice of data analysis: the theory of statistical inference assumes a fixed collection of hypotheses to be tested,  ...  Despite the basic role that adaptivity plays in data analysis we are not aware of previous general efforts to address its effects on the statistical validity of the results (see Section 1.4 for an overview  ... 
doi:10.1145/2746539.2746580 dblp:conf/stoc/DworkFHPRR15 fatcat:4bwgkro545gonpjd72m7pvacre

The reusable holdout: Preserving validity in adaptive data analysis

C. Dwork, V. Feldman, M. Hardt, T. Pitassi, O. Reingold, A. Roth
2015 Science  
Misapplication of statistical data analysis is a common cause of spurious discoveries in scientific research.  ...  We demonstrate a new approach for addressing the challenges of adaptivity based on insights from privacy-preserving data analysis.  ...  We demonstrate a new approach for addressing the challenges of adaptivity based on insights from privacy-preserving data analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1126/science.aaa9375 pmid:26250683 fatcat:7gxszijlqrgipjzyyo5hsootl4

The Generic Holdout: Preventing False-Discoveries in Adaptive Data Science [article]

Preetum Nakkiran, Jarosław Błasiok
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Adaptive data analysis has posed a challenge to science due to its ability to generate false hypotheses on moderately large data sets.  ...  This number reduces to linearly many under naive adaptive data analysis, and even sophisticated remedies such as the Reusable Holdout (Dwork et. al 2015) only allow quadratically many queries in n.  ...  The reusable holdout: Preserving validity in adaptive data analysis.  ... 
arXiv:1809.05596v1 fatcat:46qsf3p6szbtled26hf2megepa

Adaptive enrichment designs for clinical trials

N. Simon, R. Simon
2013 Biostatistics  
We show that our designs both preserve type 1 error, and in a variety of cases provide a substantial increase in power.  ...  In this manuscript we propose a class of adaptive enrichment designs which allow the eligibility criteria of a trial to be adaptively updated during the trial, restricting entry to patients likely to benefit  ...  When the adaptiveness is performed in a group sequential manner, there are other analysis strategies that preserve type I error.  ... 
doi:10.1093/biostatistics/kxt010 pmid:23525452 pmcid:PMC3769998 fatcat:6sprxp4mtvcnrfgn7lyxsk7qri

Gene Coexpression Network Topology of Cardiac Development, Hypertrophy, and Failure

F. E. Dewey, M. V. Perez, M. T. Wheeler, C. Watt, J. Spin, P. Langfelder, S. Horvath, S. Hannenhalli, T. P. Cappola, E. A. Ashley
2010 Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics  
Methods and Results-We assembled all myocardial transcript data in the Gene Expression Omnibus (nϭ1617).  ...  Although we did not find evidence for a global coordinated program of fetal gene expression in adult myocardial adaptation, our analysis revealed specific gene expression modules active during both development  ...  Figure 1 . 1 Myocardial gene microarray expression data used in analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1161/circgenetics.110.941757 pmid:21127201 pmcid:PMC3324316 fatcat:ifenj5dvcrh7lo6memuom3drna

Psycholinguistic Issues of Translation, Adaptation and Validation of «The Big Three Perfectionism Scale»

Tamara Grubi
2020 Psycholinguistics in a Modern World  
Data on primary statistical data processing, reliability, validity of the technique, correlation and factor analysis of its indicators according to psychometric requirements are given.  ...  The results of the process of translation, adaptation and standardization of the quantifier are presented.  ...  For processing of the data and evaluating its reliability, different methods were used: initial statistical data, reliability tests, methods of validity, correlation and factor analysis.  ... 
doi:10.31470/10.31470/2706-7904-2020-15-59-62 fatcat:dv2tasdtxrexnokigkqlh5temy

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Rivermead Mobility Index in stroke patients within the brazilian cultural and language context

Karina Pavan, Luciana Carneiro Alaman da Cruz, Michele Figueira Nunes, Liliam Gakiya Menezes, Bruna Eriko Matsuda Marangoni
2010 Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria  
The aim of this project is to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the assessment instrument known as the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) within the Brazilian cultural context and in  ...  The RMI was translated into Portuguese and translated back into English by independent bi-lingual translators, preserving the characteristics of the psychometrics in the original scale.  ...  Statistical analysis The data obtained was analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program, version 13.0.  ... 
doi:10.1590/s0004-282x2010000100012 pmid:20339653 fatcat:ofc6jx4vw5fkzgtw4v4cu7ohfi

Flexible, Adaptive or Attractive Clinical Trial Design

Shein-Chung Chow
2012 Drug Designing: Open Access  
on analysis of (usually interim) data from subjects in the study [7] .  ...  Validity is referred to (i) minimization of operational biases that may be introduced when applying adaptations to the trial, (ii) correct or valid statistical inference,(iii) convincing (e.g., accurate  ...  on analysis of (usually interim) data from subjects in the study [7] .  ... 
doi:10.4172/2169-0138.1000e104 fatcat:gr7sf2x5wbe5nfhuijyjdmcn6m

Adaptive Clinical Trial Designs for Simultaneous Testing of Matched Diagnostics and Therapeutics

H. I. Scher, S. F. Nasso, E. H. Rubin, R. Simon
2011 Clinical Cancer Research  
The use of adaptive design in phase III trials may offer new opportunities for matched diagnosis and treatment because the size of the trial can allow for subpopulation analysis.  ...  Developing matched diagnostics and therapeutics will require new clinical trial designs and methods of data analysis.  ...  Reducing the size of the validation set further constrains the statistical power of the subset analysis, as shown below in the paragraph describing how the power for the subset analysis in the validation  ... 
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-11-1105 pmid:22046024 pmcid:PMC3853353 fatcat:pvlanlw3jzgqbaav6llawchh4e

Predictive and Reactive Locomotor Adaptability in Healthy Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Sebastian Bohm, Lida Mademli, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
2015 Sports Medicine  
Conclusions The present meta-analysis provides elaborate statistical evidence that locomotor adaptability in general and predictive and reactive adaptation in particular remain highly effective in the  ...  General locomotor adaptability and predictive and reactive adaptation in particular are not significantly affected by aging.  ...  Statistical Analysis In order to assess the locomotor adaptability in response to repeated mechanical perturbations, the effect size of the general adaptability was calculated for each study.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0413-9 pmid:26487633 pmcid:PMC4656697 fatcat:u7wysq7pszgzra7k7axeizmsha

Flexible covariate-adjusted exact tests of randomized treatment effects with application to a trial of HIV education

Alisa J. Stephens, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Victor De Gruttola
2013 Annals of Applied Statistics  
Incorporating such auxiliary covariates in the analysis of randomized trials can increase power, but questions remain about how to preserve type I error when incorporating such covariates in a flexible  ...  To ascertain the validity of the methods shown in small samples, extensive simulation studies were conducted.  ...  Although it is standard practice to assume working independence and appeal to the robustness of semiparametric analyses for establishing validity in correlated data analysis, this strategy may result in  ... 
doi:10.1214/13-aoas679 pmid:24587845 pmcid:PMC3935423 fatcat:urssauutxnecvml6lbgqlwfu6m

You May Have Worked on More Adaptive Designs Than You Think

Christopher S. Coffey
2015 Stroke  
of the study design and hypotheses based on analysis of data (usually interim data) from subjects in the study."  ...  Furthermore, widely used methods exist which allow these interim analyses to be conducted in a way that preserves the validity and integrity of the trial.  ... 
doi:10.1161/strokeaha.114.004288 pmid:25572412 pmcid:PMC4308449 fatcat:f4kdf6yhqfekbocw4dx4us5bui

On controversial statistical issues in clinical research

Shein-Chung Chow, Fuyu Song
2015 Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials  
; 4) post hoc endpoint selection; 5) impact of protocol amendments on the characteristics of the trial population; 6) multiplicity in clinical trials; 7) missing data imputation; 8) adaptive design methods  ...  These issues include, but are not limited to: 1) appropriateness of statistical hypotheses for clinical investigation; 2) correctness of power analysis assumptions; 3) integrity of randomization and blinding  ...  A seamless adaptive design is a seamless trial design that fully utilizes data collected from patients before and after the adaptation in the final analysis.  ... 
doi:10.2147/oajct.s63266 fatcat:gimd5mux4rgy7gkrwlhf23j3g4

Reliability of a Complication Classification System for Orthopaedic Surgery

Ernest L. Sink, Michael Leunig, Ira Zaltz, Jennifer Claire Gilbert, John Clohisy
2012 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research  
Methods We adapted the validated Clavien-Dindo complication classification system and tested its reliability for orthopaedic surgery, specifically hip preservation surgery.  ...  We therefore determined the interreader and intrareader reliabilities of the adapted classification scheme as applied to hip preservation surgery.  ...  Standardized complication reporting is critical for future preservation surgery outcome analysis so that data from different centers may be clearly compared, and risks involved with specific surgical preservation  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2343-2 pmid:22528378 pmcid:PMC3392390 fatcat:5aqu6fdbgjgw7o34lro7j2d3te
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