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Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning [chapter]

Giovanni Sartor
1995 Law and Philosophy Library  
Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning.  ...  I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular.  ...  Various logical approaches have been devised for modelling defeasible reasoning-default logic, autoepistemic logic, circumscription, preferential logics, metalogics-and they can be shown to converge towards  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-015-8531-6_4 fatcat:f7c6fo6li5hr5a6iksmbgnplua

Superiority Based Revision of Defeasible Theories [chapter]

Guido Governatori, Francesco Olivieri, Simone Scannapieco, Matteo Cristani
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We propose a systematic investigation on how to modify a preference relation in a defeasible logic theory to change the conclusions of the theory itself.  ...  We argue that the approach we adopt is applicable to legal reasoning, where users, in general, cannot change facts and rules, but can propose their preferences about the relative strength of the rules.  ...  NICTA is funded by the Australian Government as represented by the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy, the Australian Research Council through the ICT Centre of Excellence program  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16289-3_10 fatcat:jabrujosergtfnetjbmwcm3nu4

Defaults and Infinitesimals: Defeasible Inference by Nonarchimedean Entropy-Maximization [article]

Emil Weydert
2013 arXiv   pre-print
We develop a new semantics for defeasible inference based on extended probability measures allowed to take infinitesimal values, on the interpretation of defaults as generalized conditional probability  ...  rules of preferential conditional logic.  ...  Defeasible entailment relations. Defme for every in terpretation strategy 'J a corresponding defeasible entail ment notion II= 'J based on II=E· i.e. entropy maximization in nonarchimedean contexts.  ... 
arXiv:1302.4988v1 fatcat:q55wyeuvcberde6hkrp6zelqey

Edited transcription of the workshop on defeasible reasoning with specificity and multiple inheritance St. Louis, April 1989

Jennie Dorosh, Ronald P. Loui
1990 ACM SIGART Bulletin  
Most formalisms are reducible to autoepistemic logic like negation as failure and logic programming. Circumscription can also be modeled in autoepistemie logic by a simple device.  ...  In work I have been doing in different domains, not in areas of defeasible logic, but in traditional logic, temporal logic, deontie logic., and other areas, the basic approach starts with a problem.  ... 
doi:10.1145/122388.122389 fatcat:xqpkc37n75biheym7vydc6w5zi

Preferential theory revision

Pierangelo Dell'Acqua, Luís Moniz Pereira
2007 Journal of Applied Logic  
Employing a logic program approach, this paper focuses on applying preferential reasoning to theory revision, both by means of preferences among existing theory rules, and by means of preferences on the  ...  And, in particular, how to prefer among plausible abductive explanations justifying observations.  ...  Then we introduce our preferential abduction framework, in the context of a specific logic program approach, and proceed to apply it to exploratory data analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jal.2006.03.010 fatcat:nqru3hc735gprcljerm2gicq4a

Negotiation Among DDeLP Agents [chapter]

Fernando A. Tohmé, Guillermo R. Simari
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Agents able to handle this dynamics of messages and beliefs can be represented by means of Defeasible Logic Programming augmented with utility functions.  ...  Negotiation can be conceived as the exchange of messages among self-interested agents in order to settle on an agreement over a given issue.  ...  Each L i in the body or the head is a literal. Then, a Defeasible Logic Program is a set of facts, strict rules, and defeasible rules.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-32261-0_15 fatcat:ceeemlwiubha5cjgcyqomutc3q

Logical models of argument

Carlos Iván Chesñevar, Ana Gabriela Maguitman, Ronald Prescott Loui
2000 ACM Computing Surveys  
in different complex systems for real-world applications, and allows more formal work to be done in different areas, such as AI and Law, case-based reasoning and negotiation among intelligent agents.  ...  Logical models of argument formalize commonsense reasoning while taking process and computation seriously. This survey discusses the main ideas that characterize different logical models of argument.  ...  Using MTDR as a basis, García developed a knowledge representation formalism for defeasible logic programming and implemented a logic programming language for dealing with defeasible rules.  ... 
doi:10.1145/371578.371581 fatcat:fcifpsaik5hd7diovit5h67p7e

An Argumentation Based Semantics for Agent Reasoning [chapter]

Sanjay Modgil
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A key challenge for agent architectures and programming paradigms is to account for defeasible reasoning over mental attitudes and to provide associated conflict resolution mechanisms.  ...  In this way we account for the fact that preference information required to resolve conflicts is itself defeasible and may be conflicting.  ...  Dung for useful and enjoyable discussions related to the work in this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-85058-8_3 fatcat:k6ttqngdifbuzl7huj643lse4a

A General Account of Argumentation with Preferences [article]

Sanjay Modgil, Henry Prakken
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We then show that the generalised framework accommodates Tarskian logic instantiations extended with preferences, and then study instantiations of the framework by classical logic approaches to argumentation  ...  We conclude by arguing that ASPIC+'s modelling of defeasible inference rules further testifies to the generality of the framework, and then examine and counter recent critiques of Dung's framework and  ...  Intuitively, contraries can be used to model well-known constructs like negation as failure in logic programming or consistency checks in default logic.  ... 
arXiv:1804.06763v1 fatcat:nlpmzytzorg3xniuqtts5qtehm

A general account of argumentation with preferences

Sanjay Modgil, Henry Prakken
2013 Artificial Intelligence  
We then show that the generalised framework accommodates Tarskian logic instantiations extended with preferences, and then study instantiations of the framework by classical logic approaches to argumentation  ...  We conclude by arguing that ASPIC + 's modelling of defeasible inference rules further testifies to the generality of the framework, and then examine and counter recent critiques of Dung's framework and  ...  Intuitively, contraries can be used to model well-known constructs like negation as failure in logic programming or consistency checks in default logic.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artint.2012.10.008 fatcat:wa65yv3rsndflelpno5felsygm

Preferences in artificial intelligence

Gabriella Pigozzi, Alexis Tsoukiàs, Paolo Viappiani
2015 Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence  
Among the proposals to capture defeasible reasoning in logics other than propositional one, we recall Lehmann and Magidor' extension to preferential predicate logics [168] , defeasible deontic logics  ...  In order to increase the potential for implementation and following [96] , arguments were expressed in a logic-programming language and their conflicts decided with the help of (defeasible) priorities  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10472-015-9475-5 fatcat:3wspv5ycirgapjv6u2bxpcd6p4

Preferential description logics: reasoning in the presence of inconsistencies

Graham Deane, Krysia Broda, Alessandra Russo, Engineering And Physical Sciences Research Council
2016
For instance: the para-consistent and the repair semantics, lack a mechanism for "arbitration" of inconsistency; and the mechanism included in possibilistic logic results in a logic with a weak consequence  ...  However, locating and repairing inconsistencies can be resource intensive.This thesis presents an inconsistency tolerant semantics for the Description Logic ALC called Preferential ALC (p-ALC).  ...  The attribute preferential acknowledges that the resultant logic belongs to the general family of preferential non-monotonic logics identified in [Sho87] .  ... 
doi:10.25560/40430 fatcat:e75lckhh7jfcddk7vejwl5uleu

Resolving conflicts in knowledge for ambient intelligence

Martin Homola, Theodore Patkos, Giorgos Flouris, Ján Šefránek, Alexander Šimko, Jozef Frtús, Dimitra Zografistou, Martin Baláž
2015 Knowledge engineering review (Print)  
AbstractAmbient intelligence (AmI) proposes pervasive information systems composed of autonomous agents embedded within the environment who, in orchestration, complement human activity in an intelligent  ...  Our main goal is to describe the state of the art in these fields, and to draw attention of researchers to important theoretical issues and practical challenges that still need to be resolved, in order  ...  Acknowledgements This work resulted from the Slovak-Greek bilateral project "Multi-context Reasoning in Heterogeneous environments", registered on the Slovak side under no.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0269888915000132 fatcat:dsa3goyft5bfxezoaz7iwuuauu

Constructing argument graphs with deductive arguments: a tutorial

Philippe Besnard, Anthony Hunter
2014 Argument & Computation  
We consider some of the possibilities in this review.  ...  Examples of logics that can be used include classical logic, modal logic, description logic, temporal logic, and conditional logic.  ...  opportunity to discuss some of the ideas in this tutorial.  ... 
doi:10.1080/19462166.2013.869765 fatcat:w765lbg4bze5njmvjdpxetnyx4

Planning under uncertainty: A qualitative approach [chapter]

Nikos I. Karacapilidis
1995 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In addition, reasoning is defeasible: further information may cause another alternative to be more preferable than what seems optimal at the moment.  ...  In spite of their success in reducing the search space, they classically assume the existence of certain and complete information.  ...  Handling uncertainty In [4] a new logic for defeasible qualitative decision making has been suggested, called Qualitative Value Logic.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-60428-6_24 fatcat:f74hgsrrczfyhhmkg674dupl74
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