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Preferential Temporal Difference Learning [article]

Nishanth Anand, Doina Precup
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Temporal-Difference (TD) learning is a general and very useful tool for estimating the value function of a given policy, which in turn is required to find good policies.  ...  Generally speaking, TD learning updates states whenever they are visited. When the agent lands in a state, its value can be used to compute the TD-error, which is then propagated to other states.  ...  Acknowledgements This research was funded through grants from NSERC and the CIFAR Learning in Machines and Brains Program.  ... 
arXiv:2106.06508v2 fatcat:5yisgqmdqbchxnfd6vdqdbncnm

Predicting Links in Multi-relational and Heterogeneous Networks

Yang Yang, Nitesh Chawla, Yizhou Sun, Jiawei Hani
2012 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Data Mining  
In accordance with our work in unsupervised learning, we further design an appropriate supervised approach in heterogeneous networks.  ...  We also explore some factors that can inform the task of classification yet remain unexplored, such as temporal information.  ...  √ √ MRIP √ PropFlow √ Recency √ Activeness √ Temporal Common Neighbor √ Temporal Jaccard Coefficient √ Temporal Adamic Adar √ Temporal Preferential Attachment √ Temporal Conference  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdm.2012.144 dblp:conf/icdm/YangCSH12 fatcat:otprwapfnne3nedgoeydpdimde

Auditory and Action Semantic Features Activate Sensory-Specific Perceptual Brain Regions

Thomas W. James, Isabel Gauthier
2003 Current Biology  
Likewise, between conditions. the posterior superior temporal sulcus, which responds well to motion, was preferentially activated by Imaging Data objects associated with "action" features (e.g., hops).  ...  Again, a one-way sounds, was preferentially activated by objects assoanalysis of variance showed no significant difference ciated with auditory features (e.g., buzzes).  ...  Conclusions Associating novel objects with verbally learned semantic features from different knowledge types produced different patterns of cortical activation during a subsequent perceptual task.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.09.039 pmid:14561404 fatcat:hbfiayracvcz7cbwvejax7wmbq

Infants' visual-proprioceptive intermodal perception with imperfect contingency information

Mark A. Schmuckler, Derryn T. Jewell
2007 Developmental Psychobiology  
In contrast, intermodal recognition failed when the mobile was indirectly attached to infants' legs, thus eliminating spatial contingencies altogether and further weakening temporal contingencies.  ...  Together, these studies reveal that even imperfect contingency information can drive intermodal perception, given appropriate levels of spatial and temporal contingency information. ß 2007 Wiley Periodicals  ...  Accordingly, positive difference scores reflect preferential fixation of the noncontingent display, whereas negative scores indicate preferential fixation of the contingent display.  ... 
doi:10.1002/dev.20214 pmid:17455236 fatcat:3ckjzeg5lvgzpo3zb3iyxr4tx4

Multi-objective optimization in learning to rank

Na Dai, Milad Shokouhi, Brian D. Davison
2011 Proceedings of the 34th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in Information - SIGIR '11  
Supervised learning to rank algorithms typically optimize for high relevance and ignore other facets of search quality, such as freshness and diversity.  ...  Pairwise ranking learning algorithms train a set of parameters ω by minimizing the ranking risk aggregated from loss of misclassified preferential query-document pairs based on relevance.  ...  and (3) what does a useful preference model look like under different correlation scales?  ... 
doi:10.1145/2009916.2010139 dblp:conf/sigir/DaiSD11a fatcat:lssage4thja6rgcsx57j7fnhhm

Temporal Synchrony Detection and Associations with Language in Young Children with ASD

Elena Patten, Linda R. Watson, Grace T. Baranek
2014 Autism Research and Treatment  
Temporally synchronous audio-visual stimuli serve to recruit attention and enhance learning, including language learning in infants.  ...  Although few studies have examined this effect on children with autism, it appears that the ability to detect temporal synchrony between auditory and visual stimuli may be impaired, particularly given  ...  Four 30-second video clips featured four different dolls, each paired with a different name and different play set.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2014/678346 pmid:25614835 pmcid:PMC4295130 fatcat:ve5aw7v4pzgptby5z24dvfpdne

How neurons make meaning: brain mechanisms for embodied and abstract-symbolic semantics

Friedemann Pulvermüller
2013 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
at the level of neuronal circuits: referential semantics, which establishes links between symbols and the objects and actions they are used to speak about; combinatorial semantics, which enables the learning  ...  Because words are used to speak about different types of objects and actions, this approach implies specific semantic mechanisms that depend on word category (e.g., object vs action words, animal  ...  To understand semantic mechanisms, an integration of these positions with each other is required, as is an explanation of why different aspects of semantics relate to different multimodal and modality-preferential  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2013.06.004 pmid:23932069 fatcat:qdrmnxx2enft3dmfdbgarrqjk4

Brain connections of words, perceptions and actions: A neurobiological model of spatio-temporal semantic activation in the human cortex

Rosario Tomasello, Max Garagnani, Thomas Wennekers, Friedemann Pulvermüller
2017 Neuropsychologia  
The model implements frontal and temporal cortical areas for language, perception, and action along with their connectivity.  ...  It uses Hebbian learning to semantically ground words in aspects of their referential object-and action-related meaning.  ...  modality-preferential cortices.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.07.004 pmid:27394150 fatcat:gxpyo6ek6zfklap3gpopthhrra

A Brain Area for Visual Numerals

J. Shum, D. Hermes, B. L. Foster, M. Dastjerdi, V. Rangarajan, J. Winawer, K. J. Miller, J. Parvizi
2013 Journal of Neuroscience  
Anatomically, this preferential response was consistently localized in the inferior temporal gyrus and anterior to the temporo-occipital incisure.  ...  Because visual numerals are culturally dependent symbols that are only learned through education, our novel finding of anatomically localized preferential response to such symbols provides a new example  ...  responses to visual symbols, such as numerals, which are only learned throughout education Figure 2 .  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4558-12.2013 pmid:23595729 pmcid:PMC3970733 fatcat:4tk2kbcopfevfbejdoy2vvidxu

Page 727 of Psychological Bulletin Vol. 33, Issue 9 [page]

1936 Psychological Bulletin  
But such previous results could, theoretically, all be explained by differences in temporal inter- vals.  ...  The greater “conditioning” to this ‘ shorter” side might depend, therefore, solely on this smaller temporal interval To see if a “short” distance would still be chosen when this difference in the temporal  ... 

Eye movements support the link between conscious memory and medial temporal lobe function

Zhisen J. Urgolites, Christine N. Smith, Larry R. Squire
2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) supports the ability to learn about facts and events (declarative memory), and the acquired knowledge is thought to be accessible to conscious awareness (4, 5).  ...  In experiment 2, five memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe lesions exhibited a diminished preferential viewing effect.  ...  The medial temporal lobe (MTL) supports the ability to learn about facts and events (declarative memory), and the acquired knowledge is thought to be accessible to conscious awareness (4, 5) .  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1803791115 pmid:29959209 fatcat:gtdp2jwwtrghli4bpqgt2nqb3a

Event-related potentials index segmentation of nonsense sounds

Lisa D. Sanders, Victoria Ameral, Kathryn Sayles
2009 Neuropsychologia  
These results indicate the preferential processing of sequence-initial information is not domain specific and instead implicate a more general cognitive mechanism such as temporally selective attention  ...  This difference was not evident for medial or final sounds in the sequences.  ...  For example, in participants who learned to discriminate between six three-syllable nonsense words and foils created from the same syllables in different sequences, word onsets in continuous streams elicited  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.11.005 pmid:19056408 pmcid:PMC2688384 fatcat:6ga33vzwkbe65frkfarqkwii6m

Memory traces of trace memories: neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and awareness

Tracey J. Shors
2004 Trends in Neurosciences  
Thus, the formation of trace memories preferentially rescued neurons in the adult hippocampus from death. Asterisk indicates a significantly different result. Using data from Ref.  ...  Thus, the formation of trace memories preferentially rescued neurons in the adult hippocampus from death. Asterisk indicates a significantly different result. Using data from Ref. [36] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tins.2004.03.007 pmid:15111006 pmcid:PMC3363970 fatcat:oz6z6sn7jrgjbadkp6ef4g5dnm

The role of age of acquisition on past tense generation in Spanish–English bilinguals: An fMRI study

Eric J. Waldron, Arturo E. Hernandez
2013 Brain and Language  
At its most basic sense, the sensorimotor/emergentist (S/E) model suggests that early second language (L2) learning is preferentially reliant upon sensory and motor processes, while later L2 learning is  ...  Early bilinguals preferentially recruited left hemisphere sensorimotor regions involved in motoric control and articulation.  ...  These three models emphasize different brain activity patterns that help to distinguish early from late language learning.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2013.01.002 pmid:23454071 pmcid:PMC3624750 fatcat:t7vwtxrd3nbbxnam4ldj7o5kky

Cognitive maps and the hippocampus

Timothy P. McNamara, Amy L. Shelton, Amy L. Shelton
2003 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
Following a familiar route and finding a novel route in a familiar environment depend on different cognitive processes and representations.  ...  Spatial tasks preferentially recruit the hippocampus because they often depend on novel uses of learned associations.  ...  Such reinstantiation of a stored representation would not be expected to preferentially engage the medial temporal lobe structures if those structures are involved in the flexible transfer of previous  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1364-6613(03)00167-0 pmid:12907223 fatcat:xypk5zg3cve73n3hczmqrbvpda
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