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Predicting pedestrian road-crossing assertiveness for autonomous vehicle control

F. Camara, O. Giles, R. Madigan, M. Rothmuller, P. Holm Rasmussen, S. A. Vendelbo-Larsen, G. Markkula, Y. M. Lee, Laura Garach, N. Merat, C. W. Fox
2018 2018 21st International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC)  
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) must interact with other road users including pedestrians.  ...  In particular, when a pedestrian wishes to cross the road in front of the vehicle at an unmarked crossing, the pedestrian and AV must compete for the space, which may be considered as a game-theoretic  ...  INTRODUCTION While localisation, mapping, route planning, and control are now largely solved problems for autonomous vehicles in static environments [10] , the major outstanding challenge for real-world  ... 
doi:10.1109/itsc.2018.8569282 dblp:conf/itsc/CamaraGMRRVMLGM18 fatcat:uzqr2ynsmrdglfuq7bb4vwsgry

Pedestrians, Autonomous Vehicles, and Cities

Adam Millard-Ball
2016 Journal of planning education and research  
Because autonomous vehicles will be risk-averse, the model suggests that pedestrians will be able to behave with impunity, and autonomous vehicles may facilitate a shift towards pedestrian-oriented urban  ...  Autonomous vehicles, popularly known as self-driving cars, have the potential to transform travel behavior. However, existing analyses have ignored strategic interactions with other road users.  ...  Acknowledgments I thank Chris Barrington-Leigh, Rachel Weinberger and Mark Massoud, as well as the editor and three anonymous reviewers, for brainstorming initial ideas and for helpful comments on a draft  ... 
doi:10.1177/0739456x16675674 fatcat:7ygy5nk4fjcg5he3nyc7tjqdki

Filtration analysis of pedestrian-vehicle interactions for autonomous vehicle control

F Camara, O Giles, R Madigan
2018 Zenodo  
When a pedestrian wishes to cross the road in front of the vehicle at an unmarked crossing, the pedestrian and AV must compete for the space, which may be considered as a game-theoretic interaction in  ...  Interacting with humans remains a challenge for autonomous vehicles (AVs).  ...  for real-world autonomous vehicles is operation in environments containing people.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3265767 fatcat:h72atvhusvgprmb62ycyoybhfm

A heuristic model for pedestrian intention estimation

Fanta Camara, Natasha Merat, Charles W. Fox
2019 2019 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC)  
Understanding pedestrian behaviour and controlling interactions with pedestrians is of critical importance for autonomous vehicles, but remains a complex and challenging problem.  ...  This study infers pedestrian intent during possible road-crossing interactions, to assist autonomous vehicle decisions to yield or not yield when approaching them, and tests a simple heuristic model of  ...  A game theoretic model, 'Sequential Chicken', was recently proposed to provide optimal strategies for such scenarios where an autonomous vehicle is encountering a pedestrian intending to cross the road  ... 
doi:10.1109/itsc.2019.8917195 dblp:conf/itsc/CamaraMF19 fatcat:ziysrx5prrgtxgvdweo7eqka5y

Pedestrian Models for Autonomous Driving Part II: high level models of human behaviour [article]

Fanta Camara, Nicola Bellotto, Serhan Cosar, Florian Weber, Dimitris Nathanael, Matthias Althoff, Jingyuan Wu, Johannes Ruenz, André Dietrich, Gustav Markkula, Anna Schieben, Fabio Tango, Natasha Merat (+1 others)
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) must share space with human pedestrians, both in on-road cases such as cars at pedestrian crossings and off-road cases such as delivery vehicles navigating through crowds on high-streets  ...  models of interactions between pedestrians and autonomous vehicles.  ...  trajectories, such as for pedestrians intending to cross the road.  ... 
arXiv:2003.11959v1 fatcat:acjjwohahvdlxgy56j45fjtkdq

A Hybrid Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles at Uncontrolled Intersections [article]

Nitin R. Kapania, Vijay Govindarajan, Francesco Borrelli, J. Christian Gerdes
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This paper considers the interaction of a pedestrian and an autonomous vehicle at a mid-block, unsignalized intersection where there is ambiguity over when the pedestrian should cross and when and how  ...  The controller is validated through extensive simulation and compared to an alternate POMDP solution and experimental results are provided on a research vehicle for a virtual pedestrian.  ...  The hybrid controller maintains a peak acceleration of 2 m/s 2 for the vast majority of simulated trials, particularly when the pedestrian crosses from the opposing side of the road or when the vehicle  ... 
arXiv:1902.00597v1 fatcat:gsgu3g6u7nb7dbjkphu4tsnrza

Communication and Communication Problems Between Autonomous Vehicles and Human Drivers [chapter]

Berthold Färber
2016 Autonomous Driving  
For one thing, autonomous vehicles will predict whether a pedestrian intends to cross the street based on the pedestrian's trajectory and acceleration.  ...  Anticipatory Behavior Small actions make the direction of someone's behavior predictable for other road users.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-48847-8_7 fatcat:xunxapb7jbfxdnuso4l7fwxe4m

Interact or counteract? Behavioural observation of interactions between vulnerable road users and autonomous shuttles in Oslo, Norway

Tim De Ceunynck, Brecht Pelssers, Torkel Bjørnskau, Ole Aasvik, Aslak Fyhri, Aliaksei Laureshyn, Carl Johnsson, Marjan Hagenzieker, Heike Martensen
2022 Traffic Safety Research  
Generally, the automated shuttles failed to give way to pedestrians at pedestrian crossings in 26%–50% of the interactions.  ...  in which a vulnerable road user behaved ignorant or aggressive towards the automated shuttles.  ...  Acknowledgement This study is part of the Autobus project and was mainly financed by the Research Council of Norway, with contributions also from the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Buskerud county  ... 
doi:10.55329/fbhr3456 fatcat:wh5ii7eqrvbxtiuern7nlita5m

A Utility Maximization Model of Pedestrian and Driver Interactions [article]

Yi-Shin Lin, Aravinda Ramakrishnan Srinivasan, Matteo Leonetti, Jac Billington, Gustav Markkula
2021 arXiv   pre-print
When a pedestrian crosses the road while facing an approaching car, (c) either road user yields to the other to resolve their conflict, akin to the pedestrian interaction, and (d) the outcome reveals a  ...  Building on the concept of sensorimotor control, we develop a modeling framework applying the principles of utility maximization, motor primitives, and intermittent action decisions to account for the  ...  Typical observed time gaps in which pedestrians make attempts to cross roads when a vehicle drives toward the crossing are between 2 to 6 seconds [42] .  ... 
arXiv:2110.11015v1 fatcat:3w3nrniyxrcctlidbbu27n7b7e

Autonomous Vehicles and Vulnerable Road-Users—Important Considerations and Requirements Based on Crash Data from Two Countries

Andrew Paul Morris, Narelle Haworth, Ashleigh Filtness, Daryl-Palma Asongu Nguatem, Laurie Brown, Andry Rakotonirainy, Sebastien Glaser
2021 Behavioral Sciences  
and represent scenarios in which future connected and autonomous vehicles may be challenged in terms of safe manoeuvring. (3) Road intersections are currently very common locations for vulnerable road-user  ...  vulnerable road-users taking unforeseen risks. (4) Conclusions: The challenges of unpredictable vulnerable road-user behaviour at intersections (including road-users violating traffic or safe-crossing  ...  Implications for Autonomous Vehicles-Pedestrians Data from Great Britain suggest that around half of pedestrian accidents occur at sites remote from crossing facilities, with many occurring when parked  ... 
doi:10.3390/bs11070101 fatcat:uvam76rgozahfnqyiu3z3z4qeq

Space Invaders: Pedestrian Proxemic Utility Functions and Trust Zones for Autonomous Vehicle Interactions

Fanta Camara, Charles Fox
2020 International Journal of Social Robotics  
AbstractUnderstanding pedestrian proxemic utility and trust will help autonomous vehicles to plan and control interactions with pedestrians more safely and efficiently.  ...  When pedestrians cross the road in front of human-driven vehicles, the two agents use knowledge of each other's preferences to negotiate and to determine who will yield to the other.  ...  Acknowledgements This project has received funding from EU H2020 project interACT: Designing cooperative interaction of automated vehicles with other road users in mixed traffic environments under Grant  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12369-020-00717-x fatcat:cqjnmx4stfan7ioe37okzzagmq

How Do We Study Pedestrian Interaction with Automated Vehicles? Preliminary Findings from the European interACT Project [chapter]

Natasha Merat, Yee Mun Lee, Gustav Markkula, Jim Uttley, Fanta Camara, Charles Fox, André Dietrich, Florian Weber, Anna Schieben
2019 Lecture Notes in Mobility  
interacting with other road users, especially pedestrians.  ...  , externally presented interfaces can be used for communication between AVs and pedestrians.  ...  Using game theory to understand the interaction between pedestrians and AVs Controlling autonomous vehicles in the presence of pedestrians, when they are competing for the same space, requires an understanding  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-22933-7_3 fatcat:24uh2c3jkvghjdsnnig34wd5bi

Vision zero: a toolkit for road safety in the modern era

Ellen Kim, Peter Muennig, Zohn Rosen
2017 Injury Epidemiology  
This article examines various major components of VZ: how VZ redefines road safety, how VZ principles and philosophies can be applied to modern car and road designs, and how VZ can be applied to traffic  ...  Vision Zero (VZ) is a public program that aims to have zero fatalities or serious injuries from road traffic crashes.  ...  This study was supported in part by Grant 1 R49 CE002096 from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s40621-016-0098-z pmid:28066870 pmcid:PMC5219975 fatcat:6gcvzu52i5dxvb74ahivzlkb74

Prediction of Pedestrian Crossing Behavior Based on Surveillance Video

Xiao Zhou, Hongyu Ren, Tingting Zhang, Xingang Mou, Yi He, Ching-Yao Chan
2022 Sensors  
Pedestrian crossing behavior prediction based on surveillance video can be used in key road sections or accident-prone areas to provide supplementary information for vehicle decision-making, thereby reducing  ...  Prediction of pedestrian crossing behavior is an important issue faced by the realization of autonomous driving.  ...  For example, when pedestrians are blocked by other vehicles or other road elements, it is difficult for the vehicle-mounted camera to observe the pedestrians who will be crossing the street.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s22041467 pmid:35214369 pmcid:PMC8876527 fatcat:cvuyvdn2yja2ffpqyybatcgddy

Use-case Generation and Analysis for Autonomous Driving in Urban Areas

Takuya Nanri, Fang Fang, Abdelaziz Khiat
2021 International Journal of Automotive Engineering  
Being able to generate adequate test scenarios in order to validate autonomous driving functions is of paramount importance for the deployment of autonomous vehicles.  ...  Thereafter, for the sake of accelerating the development work of our autonomous vehicle, we used this asset to clarify which use-cases should be solved and in what order.  ...  Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Alexandre Armand and Javier Ibañez-Guzmán for the simulating discussions.  ... 
doi:10.20485/jsaeijae.12.2_54 fatcat:lzquld2q4ffcnpracrbujhxege
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