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Predicting SMT Solver Performance for Software Verification

Andrew Healy, Rosemary Monahan, James F. Power
2017 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
The Why3 IDE and verification system facilitates the use of a wide range of Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers through a driver-based architecture.  ...  It does this in a time-efficient way using existing Why3 and solver installations - without requiring low-level knowledge about SMT solver operation from the user.  ...  for software verification We used the Python Sci-kit Learn [33] implementations of these models Predicting SMT Solver Performance for Software Verification All data collection was conducted  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.240.2 fatcat:5rfj2xpgzrbprh77rizz67d4re

MachSMT: A Machine Learning-based Algorithm Selector for SMT Solvers [chapter]

Joseph Scott, Aina Niemetz, Mathias Preiner, Saeed Nejati, Vijay Ganesh
2021 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
MachSMT is not a replacement for SMT solvers by any means.  ...  ., BV, LIA, NRA, etc.) in verification, program analysis, and software engineering. The MachSMT tool is designed to be easily tuned and extended to any suitable solver application by users.  ...  In recent years, SMT solvers have had a revolutionary impact on applications in software engineering (broadly construed), such as software testing [17, 48] and verification [23, 15, 27, 39] , as well  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-72013-1_16 fatcat:xpdqzsxqnvfvplyd7gp5sd2qre

MachSMT: A Machine Learning-based Algorithm Selector for SMT Solvers

Joseph Scott, Aina Niemetz, Mathias Preiner, Saeed Nejati, Vijay Ganesh
2021 Zenodo  
An algorithm selection tool for SMT solvers  ...  SMT solvers have had a revolutionary impact on applications in software engineering (broadly construed), such as software testing [15, 46] and verification [22, 14, 38, 39] , as well as in sub-fields  ...  In this specific setting of floating-point solvers, input instances may be derived from a variety of applications, such as software verification or analysis of machine learning (ML) models [53] .  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4458698 fatcat:zgirqirgfbhfvahxpsbfik4o4i

Context-Bounded Translations for Concurrent Software: An Empirical Evaluation [chapter]

Naghmeh Ghafari, Alan J. Hu, Zvonimir Rakamarić
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For example, using a different (slower) SMT solver changes the relative ranking of the translations, potentially misleading researchers and practitioners to use an inferior translation. (3) SMT runtimes  ...  Clearly, previous results for Boolean model checking do not apply to verification-condition checking. (2) Disturbingly, confounding factors in the experimental design can change the relative performance  ...  However, SMT/SAT solver performance is quirky, highly dependent on heuristics, and hard to predict. Fortunately, our experiments suggest an avenue for predicting performance.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16164-3_17 fatcat:4aei3iv3ard67j445fmapyu3km

Continuous Verification of Large Embedded Software using SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking [article]

Lucas Cordeiro, Bernd Fischer, Joao Marques-Silva
2009 arXiv   pre-print
The complexity of software in embedded systems has increased significantly over the last years so that software verification now plays an important role in ensuring the overall product quality.  ...  We also give a set of encodings that provide accurate support for program verification and use different background theories in order to improve scalability and precision in a completely automatic way.  ...  CBMC has support for SAT and SMT solvers in the back-end and in our comparison we use the SMT solver Z3 for evaluating both tools CBMC and ESBMC.  ... 
arXiv:0911.3784v1 fatcat:amj75xel5rdcfb2mxkk2nu23eq

Continuous Verification of Large Embedded Software Using SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking

Lucas Cordeiro, Bernd Fischer, Joao Marques-Silva
2010 2010 17th IEEE International Conference and Workshops on Engineering of Computer Based Systems  
The complexity of software in embedded systems has increased significantly over the last years so that software verification now plays an important role in ensuring the overall product quality.  ...  We also give a set of encodings that provide accurate support for program verification and use different background theories in order to improve scalability and precision in a completely automatic way.  ...  Silva for their comments on a draft version.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecbs.2010.24 dblp:conf/ecbs/CordeiroFM10 fatcat:xy6kly2y2rhdlnv4ppdlpvbof4

Selected Methods of Model Checking Using SAT and SMT-Solvers [chapter]

Agnieszka M. Zbrzezny
2015 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing  
A major part of the research will involve the development of SMT-based BMC methods for standard Kripke structures, extended Kripke structures, and for different kinds of interpreted systems for different  ...  The objectives of this research are to further investigate the foundations for novel SMT and SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) algorithms for real-time and multiagent systems.  ...  formula and forwarded to a SMT-solver.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-19629-9_27 fatcat:qfwwxg3a2rakriggv7kbwstjny

Developing Verified Software Using Leon [chapter]

Viktor Kuncak
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For verification Leon uses an incremental function unfolding algorithm (which could be viewed as k-induction) and SMT solvers.  ...  To make this process more efficient and predictable, Leon supports deductive synthesis of functions from specifications, both interactively and in an automated mode.  ...  For verification Leon uses an incremental function unfolding algorithm (which could be viewed as kinduction) and SMT solvers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17524-9_2 fatcat:7662wo733nhhhmxyzzrtsb2ucm

Jolie Static Type Checker: a Prototype

Daniel De Carvalho, Manuel Mazzara, Bogdan Mingela, Larisa Safina, Alexander Tchitchigin, Nikolay Troshkov
2017 Modelirovanie i Analiz Informacionnyh Sistem  
In this paper, we describe a prototype of Jolie Static Type Checker (JSTC), which employs a technique based on a SMT solver.  ...  Static verification of a program source code correctness is an important element of software reliability.  ...  SMT Solver Z3 carries out the main burden of program verification. Z3 is an SMT solver from Microsoft Research [21] .  ... 
doi:10.18255/1818-1015-2017-6-704-717 fatcat:iob44rd5nbbvfoxuwnxu52ryfa

Formal Verification of Software Countermeasures against Side-Channel Attacks

Hassan Eldib, Chao Wang, Patrick Schaumont
2014 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology  
We have implemented the proposed method in a software verification tool based on the LLVM compiler frontend and the Yices SMT solver.  ...  We encode this verification problem using a series of quantifier-free first-order logic formulas, whose satisfiability can be decided by an off-the-shelf SMT solver.  ...  Indeed, our SMT-solver-based method would be too expensive for verifying general-purpose software applications.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2685616 fatcat:tyfoa57ewve7vewbnu5wfhuyue

Jolie Static Type Checker: a prototype [article]

Daniel de Carvalho, Manuel Mazzara, Bogdan Mingela, Larisa Safina, Alexander Tchitchigin, Nikolay Troshkov
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we describe a prototype of Jolie Static Type Checker (JSTC), which employs a technique based on a SMT solver.  ...  Static verification of a program source code correctness is an important element of software reliability.  ...  SMT Solver Z3 carries out the main functionality of program verification. Z3 is an SMT solver from Microsoft Research [9] .  ... 
arXiv:1702.07146v5 fatcat:b4mn4bqtjfhqfdao32zjqhldfe

Intelligent Systems and Formal Methods in Software Engineering

Bernhard Beckert, Tony Hoare, Reiner Hahnle, Douglas Smith, Cordell Green, Silvio Ranise, Cesare Tinelli, Thomas Ball, Sriram Rajamani
2006 IEEE Intelligent Systems  
Verified software consists of programs that have been proved free of certain rigorously specified kinds of error.  ...  For example, software verification problems often require handling formulas with quantifiers, something that SMT solvers don't yet do satisfactorily.  ...  Several SMT solvers have been developed in academia and industry with continually increasing scope and improved performance.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mis.2006.117 fatcat:e3gffxrewbhubelnmkv7rvrf7i

An SMT Theory of Fixed-Point Arithmetic [chapter]

Marek Baranowski, Shaobo He, Mathias Lechner, Thanh Son Nguyen, Zvonimir Rakamarić
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We implement the two decision procedures, and evaluate our implementations using existing mature SMT solvers on a benchmark suite we created.  ...  Finally, we perform a case study of using the theory we propose to verify properties of quantized neural networks.  ...  Moreover, all the solvers demonstrate similar performance for the bit-vector encoding Table 1 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-51074-9_2 fatcat:fqu6rnvytba55mwmfh4ugcp37e

Verifying Quantized Neural Networks using SMT-Based Model Checking [article]

Luiz Sena, Xidan Song, Erickson Alves, Iury Bessa, Edoardo Manino, Lucas Cordeiro, Eddie de Lima Filho
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Here, we develop and evaluate a novel symbolic verification framework using software model checking (SMC) and satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) to check for vulnerabilities in ANNs.  ...  Furthermore, for small- to medium-sized ANN, our approach completes most of its verification runs in minutes.  ...  the SMT solver.  ... 
arXiv:2106.05997v2 fatcat:7rzp3pbvgzg3nke4coejvfct6y

An Empirical Study of Path Feasibility Queries [article]

Asankhaya Sharma
2013 arXiv   pre-print
We study the performance of solving such path feasibility queries using SMT solvers for real world programs.  ...  We show that among the different SMT solvers, STP is better than Z3 by an order of magnitude for such kind of queries.  ...  For future work we would like to develop the results of section V C into a complete empirically model, which can be used to predict the performance of SMT solvers for different programs.  ... 
arXiv:1302.4798v1 fatcat:auzhlzu7bbb4fcci7eea7t4xl4
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