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On the statistical distribution of object-oriented system properties

Israel Herraiz, Daniel Rodriguez, Rachel Harrison
2012 2012 3rd International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Metrics (WETSoM)  
In the case of object-oriented systems, these distributions have been found to obey a power law, a common statistical distribution also found in many other fields.  ...  Our study is based on the Qualitas Corpus, a large compendium of diverse Java-based software projects.  ...  In the case of object oriented systems, although at a first glance some object oriented properties seem to follow power law distributions, the truth is that both lognormal and power law distributions have  ... 
doi:10.1109/wetsom.2012.6226994 dblp:conf/icse/HerraizRH12 fatcat:5tasprrc2nhujncdj3k3pinkti

Dynamical evolution analysis of the object-oriented software systems

Huan Li, Beibei Huang, Jinhu Lu
2008 2008 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence)  
Software evolution and update play a vital role in software engineering.  ...  It discovers some underlying dynamical evolution characteristics and rules of the object-oriented software systems.  ...  The scale-free character reveals the large inhomogeneity in the network structure, where the distribution of degree of a node is very wide, is usually described by a power law form, i.e.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cec.2008.4631207 dblp:conf/cec/LiHL08 fatcat:x2afkf4r5zdlxhdeq3gm4sfaum

Visual, Object-Oriented Development of Parallel Applications

JAMES WEBBER, PETER A. LEE
2001 Journal of Visual Languages and Computing  
The paper discusses this issue, and presents a visual, object-oriented parallel programming language, Vorlon, which addresses the management of both problem domain complexity and implementation complexity  ...  , to support the development of general-purpose parallel applications by programmers who are non-specialists in parallelism.  ...  , object-oriented software system.  ... 
doi:10.1006/jvlc.2000.0193 fatcat:36qhyosji5fovh2ndwk6djh3cm

Power Law Distributions in Class Relationships [article]

Richard Wheeldon, Steve Counsell
2003 arXiv   pre-print
Power law distributions have been found in many natural and social phenomena, and more recently in the source code and run-time characteristics of Object-Oriented (OO) systems.  ...  A power law implies that small values are extremely common, whereas large values are extremely rare.  ...  We would expect a power law to apply to the size of classes in object-oriented systems. Size in this sense is defined in terms of the number of methods, constructors and other class features.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0305037v2 fatcat:5dczqup45je4zhg22ddh3xgbru

Application of graph theory to OO software engineering

Alexander Chatzigeorgiou, Nikolaos Tsantalis, George Stephanides
2006 Proceedings of the 2006 international workshop on Workshop on interdisciplinary software engineering research - WISER '06  
So is Object-Oriented (OO) software engineering, which deals with the analysis, design and implementation of systems employing classes as modules.  ...  The study of graph properties can be valuable in many ways for understanding the characteristics of the underlying software systems.  ...  Object-oriented systems aim at modeling a given problem as well as its solution as a set of interacting objects.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1137661.1137669 dblp:conf/wiser/ChatzigeorgiouT06 fatcat:uxvpj4cdjvedjnlyn7bozp6slu

Trends in object-oriented software evolution: Investigating network properties

Alexander Chatzigeorgiou, George Melas
2012 2012 34th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE)  
The inherent graph-like structure of object-oriented systems calls for the application of the corresponding methods and tools to analyze software evolution.  ...  Relating the observed evolutionary trends to principles and laws of software design enables a highlevel assessment of tendencies in the underlying design quality.  ...  This power-law distribution implies that few classes provide services to a large number of clients, while most classes are accessed by a limited number of other modules.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icse.2012.6227092 dblp:conf/icse/ChatzigeorgiouM12 fatcat:sby2f6mllfeptkds27nges4bt4

Smart Contracts Software Metrics: a First Study [article]

Roberto Tonelli, Giuseppe Destefanis, Michele Marchesi, Marco Ortu
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Some of the stylized facts, like power law in the tail of the distribution of some metrics, are only approximate but the lines of code follow a log normal distribution which reminds of the same behavior  ...  already found in traditional software systems.  ...  to methods with the same name, the number of immediate subclasses of a given class in five large object-oriented software system [11] , [12] .  ... 
arXiv:1802.01517v2 fatcat:l4pvjzzk4fazxmtqbeeaqyuty4

An Empirical Study of Different Types of Changes in the Eclipse Project

Pitamber Tiwari, Wei Li, Raouf Alomainy, Bingyang Wei
2013 The Open Software Engineering Journal  
Our research objective is to verify the results from the previous error distribution studies by using the data from a large open source system: Eclipse, in its decade long evolution history.  ...  El Emam and colleagues studied a large C++ system and found the confounding effect of class size on the prediction of software faults, and suggested that class size was a major predictor of class faults  ...  External Threats: The Eclipse Project is a mature industrial software tool that has been in the post-release evolution process for more than a decade.  ... 
doi:10.2174/1874107x01307010024 fatcat:h3kf3cmsrfbejfemuw4yya2x5a

Research trends in structural software complexity [article]

Tom Mens
2016 arXiv   pre-print
There are many dimensions of software complexity. In this article, we explore how structural complexity is measured and used to study and control evolving software systems.  ...  We also present the current research challenges and emerging trends in this domain that has remained active for nearly four decades, and continues to evolve.  ...  Very similar power laws were observed for all of these systems, with a higher exponent for out-degree than for in-degree.  ... 
arXiv:1608.01533v1 fatcat:btjqovxt5rb53b7zdx7jc4egke

Inter-Package Dependency Networks in Open-Source Software [article]

Nathan LaBelle, Eugene Wallingford
2004 arXiv   pre-print
By mining open-source software repositories from two sources, we empirically show that the coupling of modules at this granularity creates a small-world and scale-free network in both instances.  ...  We review complex networks identified at "lower" levels of abstraction, and then formulate a description of interacting software components at the package level, a relatively "high" level of abstraction  ...  In the case of object-oriented programming languages, several studies [10, 13, 15, 16] have identified the small-world effect and power-law edge distribution in networks of objects or procedures where  ... 
arXiv:cs/0411096v1 fatcat:ccjwiuab2bd4zg6lxrhrqgclte

An Analysis of Bug Distribution in Object Oriented Systems [article]

Alessandro Murgia, Giulio Concas, Michele Marchesi, Roberto Tonelli, Ivana Turnu
2009 arXiv   pre-print
We found that the distribution of some metrics, and the number of bugs per CU, exhibit a power-law behavior in their tails, as well as the number of CUs influenced by a specific bug.  ...  We find a relationship among the software system and the bugs hitting its nodes.  ...  [14] , show a large variety of cases in which power-laws well account for the distribution of different software properties.  ... 
arXiv:0905.3296v1 fatcat:yikkr2ei3zf5vbiou3go6c6bbq

A clustering based on optimization for object oriented quality prediction

Moksha Thakur, Kailash Patidar, Sudeesh Chouhan, Rishi Kushwah
2018 International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration  
In this paper software metric estimation has been established through object oriented parameters measures and quality estimation techniques.  ...  First the dataset has been prepared based on the object oriented programming.  ...  In 2012, Herraiz et al. [14] suggested that the statistical distributions in case of object-oriented systems, these distributions have been found to obey a power law.  ... 
doi:10.19101/ijatee.2018.541003 fatcat:ehwdt25tufgczed3bwnx5uc22e

Method of Coupling Metrics for Object-Oriented Software System Based on CSBG Approach

Aihua Gu, Lu Li, Shujun Li, Qifeng Xun, Jian Dong, Jianhong Lin
2020 Mathematical Problems in Engineering  
Coupling between classes is an important metric for software complexity in software systems. Objective.  ...  Additionally, the calculated power-law value was used as a metric for coupling measurement, so as to calculate coupling of the three open-source software.  ...  In an object-oriented software system G � (c 1 , c 2 , . . . , c N ) , there are two classes c 1 , c 2 ∈ G, and class c ′ is a merger of classes c 1 and c 2 . e object-oriented system G ′ is a system  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/3428604 fatcat:aia5zmkpuvayjctl3jmm4mfzqa

Object-oriented network topology processor [power system automation]

S. Pandit, S.A. Soman, S.A. Khaparde
2001 IEEE Computer Applications in Power  
Object-oriented systems stress reuse of software components. Typically, with changes in technology, applications evolve ( Figure 1) ; however, physical laws governing them remain the same.  ...  Thus, an object-oriented approach can be used to develop a toolkit for power system applications.  ...  Object-oriented systems stress reuse of software components. Typically, with changes in technology, applications evolve ( Figure 1) ; however, physical laws governing them remain the same.  ... 
doi:10.1109/67.917585 fatcat:greqz3x3cfccdpkasc5vahywue

Formal techniques for OO software development

Pierre America, Derek Coleman, Roger Duke, Doug Lea, Gary Leavens
1991 Conference proceedings on Object-oriented programming systems, languages, and applications - OOPSLA '91  
The laws of software engineering still hold -software development must be a systematic and managed process. Objects are not a panacea.  ...  Until such a fusion takes place I am pessimistic about the prospects for large-scale object-oriented software development.  ... 
doi:10.1145/117954.117967 dblp:conf/oopsla/ChampeauxACDLLH91 fatcat:qmkuqtonhbajxoczqtd27wvrqe
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