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Possibilities, Intentions and Threats: Dual Use in the Life Sciences Reconsidered

Koos van der Bruggen
2011 Science and Engineering Ethics  
Due to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the anthrax letters  ...  Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided  ...  the original author(s) and source are credited.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11948-011-9266-2 pmid:21327859 pmcid:PMC3513596 fatcat:aaeoyp5uyrak7dh5qxhq3iv7xe

Dual-Use Research and Technological Diffusion: Reconsidering the Bioterrorism Threat Spectrum

Jonathan E. Suk, Anna Zmorzynska, Iris Hunger, Walter Biederbick, Julia Sasse, Heinrich Maidhof, Jan C. Semenza, Glenn F. Rall
2011 PLoS Pathogens  
Members of the US NSABB have even argued that the inhibition of life science research could be considered a threat to national security and public health in and of itself [25] .  ...  Public health, too, is dual use: it can be leveraged to counter natural and intentional disease outbreaks.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001253 pmid:21249234 pmcid:PMC3020926 fatcat:fvqr2qr6djb3ti5xjddgpwqqzu

THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE ECB: JUSTIFICATION, LIMITATIONS AND POSSIBLE THREATS

2018 Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics  
The paper first takes a brief look at the economic and judicial justification for the independent status of central banks in general and will thereby also illustrate the different manifestations of independence  ...  Until today its independent status has not been violated by any of the analysed measures. Possible threats, however, continue to exist.  ...  Acknowledgments This project is related to the research agenda of the ADEMU project, "A Dynamic Economic and Monetary Union".  ... 
doi:10.22381/jsme6120184 fatcat:lrejl3qetbc4jb6k4w4kyjkhzu

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF PRINCIPAL THREATS TO ECONOMIC SECURITY OF THE REGION IN THE PROCESS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

Anatolii Humenyuk, Zoran Cekerevac
2015 MEST Journal  
Threats to economic security and their ranking according to the nature and extent of the possible destructive action are classified.  ...  Classification criteria of threats in the region to help in the analysis of probability prediction and control of negative consequences of existing threats to economic security are proposed, sources of  ...  in the social sciences", the national security".  ... 
doi:10.12709/mest.03.03.01.07 fatcat:urutnkudbvgfro7tnyrj2bezfu

Towards a Critical Reconstruction of Modern Refugee Subjectivity: Overcoming the Threat–Victim Bipolarity with Judith Butler and Giorgio Agamben

Ariadni Polychroniou
2021 Open Philosophy  
In this context, Judith Butler's critique on the Agambenian bare life is presented in two core pillars.  ...  Following one Butlerian claim, we trace the Agambenian inadequacy to successfully overcome the contemporary threat–victim mode of refugee representation in the absence of an empowering theoretical account  ...  Laura Hellsten, as well as the three anonymous reviewers and the Editorial Team of Open Philosophy, for their substantial contribution to the enhancement of this academic research and the publication of  ... 
doi:10.1515/opphil-2020-0185 fatcat:vdtjla24dnbe3gcuemiema32iq

The Perils and Politics of Criminological Research and the Threat to Academic Freedom

Mike Presdee, Reece Walters
1998 Current Issues in Criminal Justice  
The Australian horticulture industry has endemic labour challenges, both in terms of poorly managed and distributed labour supply and a systemic problem of noncompliance with labour standards.  ...  In particular, it proposes a model for the one-off status regularisation of undocumented migrant workers in the Australian horticulture industry.  ...  As the ALRC noted, dual-track regulation is common in many 162 The ALRC referred to such a possibility in its Final Report, but did not make any recommendations: ibid 283 [7. 45]. 2021] ADDRESSING  ... 
doi:10.1080/10345329.1998.12036124 fatcat:3owicxuudnamphkkctf7yyxqlq

The Increasingly Compelling Moral Responsibilities of Life Scientists

David A. Relman
2013 The Hastings center report  
M any of my colleagues and fellow investigators in the life sciences were surprised in late 2011 to hear about the deliberate laboratory manipulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for the  ...  Frida Kuhlau and colleagues describe a set of moral obligations for life scientists that are particularly relevant to "dual-use" research of concern. 4 One of these, the moral duty to prevent harm, includes  ...  The applicability of freedom of inquiry and respect for autonomy is increasingly problematic. The capability of doing harm to large populations is spreading and expanding.  ... 
doi:10.1002/hast.156 pmid:23494700 fatcat:yunk3crcszcpljcazelhylft5y

Moving Life Science Ethics Debates Beyond National Borders: Some Empirical Observations

Louise Bezuidenhout
2013 Science and Engineering Ethics  
The life sciences are increasingly being called on to produce "socially robust" knowledge that honors the social contract between science and society.  ...  To illustrate this, the paper offers some empirical fieldwork data that considers how the concept of dual-use (as a broad social issue) was discussed within African and UK laboratories.  ...  Acknowledgments Many thanks to Prof Brian Rappert at the University of Exeter for his comments on this manuscript. The fieldwork presented at this paper was sponsored by the Welcome Trust.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11948-013-9468-x pmid:24046220 pmcid:PMC4724880 fatcat:mzkrzm3ilfcqdbsseqg5jfmofi

Dual-Use Quickscan: A Web-Based Tool to Assess the Dual-Use Potential of Life Science Research

Iris M. Vennis, Mirjam M. Schaap, Petra A. M. Hogervorst, Arnout de Bruin, Sjors Schulpen, Marijke A. Boot, Mark W. J. van Passel, Saskia A. Rutjes, Diederik A. Bleijs
2021 Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology  
Potential malicious use of well-intended research, referred to as "dual-use research", poses a threat to public health and the environment.  ...  The Dual-Use Quickscan can be embedded in a broader system of biosafety and biosecurity that includes dual-use monitoring and awareness within organizations.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank all stakeholders involved in the development of the Dual-Use Quickscan, with a special thanks to the expert committee that supported the Biosecurity Office  ... 
doi:10.3389/fbioe.2021.797076 pmid:34957083 pmcid:PMC8696162 fatcat:hudqydsyindh7e7nu7umfqdc4a

Nanotech Nightmares [chapter]

2011 Innovation and Nanotechnology  
of whether the science in question has both a benefi cial and harmful use.  ...  This argument works best with 'dual-use' scientifi c subjects, like bioweapons, nuclear fi ssion, and fusion. 2 The tremendous possible peaceful uses of thermonuclear technologies argue well for most  ... 
doi:10.5040/9781849664783.ch-008 fatcat:px4ve4qo2zftdd6bi4lvjmgn3u

On Genies and Bottles: Scientists' Moral Responsibility and Dangerous Technology RD

David Koepsell
2009 Science and Engineering Ethics  
The age-old maxim of scientists whose work has resulted in deadly or dangerous technologies is: scientists are not to blame, but rather technologists and politicians must be morally culpable for the uses  ...  "grey goo" scenario in nanotechnology, this paper suggests how ethical principles developed in biomedicine can be adjusted for science in general.  ...  The tremendous possible peaceful uses of thermonuclear technologies argue well for most scientific investigation regarding the underlying sciences.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11948-009-9158-x pmid:19644770 pmcid:PMC2832882 fatcat:ln7ltiis4rekljb7277nncg664

Securitizing Biosecurity: The Scope for Civil-Military Coordination in Pakistan

Dr. Najimdeen Bakare, Aisha Ali
2021 IPRI Journal  
, mainly through problems of dual-use.  ...  The problem is further compounded by the rising possibility of naturally occurring threats.  ...  While the bioscience discipline continues to do their research, the military should understand threats and risks to see if there can be any possibility of the research being used for malicious intent.  ... 
doi:10.31945/iprij.210201 fatcat:3p7vfehq5bfbrd4mkthkylyz2i

Why has Not There been More Research of Concern?

Brian Rappert
2014 Frontiers in Public Health  
In the last 10 years, life science publishers, funders, and labs have rarely identified any research as "of concern," let alone proposed censors.  ...  Amid the renewed concern in the last several years about the potential for life science research to facilitate the spread of disease, a central plank of the policy response has been to enact processes  ...  approved by the College of Social Science and International Studies Ethics Committee at the University of Exeter.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00074 pmid:25101254 pmcid:PMC4106452 fatcat:bjar3oexy5fv7kqj45ffqvgy4e

Facing the 2020 Pandemic: What does Cyberbiosecurity want us to know to safeguard the future?

Siguna Mueller
2020 Biosafety and Health  
measures, their validation and implementation, and (3) specific critical dangers and consequences, many of them unique to the life-sciences.  ...  I conclude with recommendations that will need to be taken into consideration to help ensure converging and emerging biorisk challenges, in order to minimize vulnerabilities to the life-science enterprise  ...  High impact consequences in the life-science context The context of the life-sciences involves unique concerns and unknowns.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bsheal.2020.09.007 pmid:33015604 pmcid:PMC7518802 fatcat:7dr37qbdubevbe2gkn6ojgiefe

Does Health Anxiety Influences Brand Engagement?

Farida Indriani, I Made Sukresna, Cahyaningratri
2021 Journal of Resilient Economies (ISSN: 2653-1917)  
COVID-19 pandemic delivers unprecedented impacts on human life. This study aims to investigate the effect of mortality threat on attitude and intention to buy healthcare brands during the pandemic.  ...  Subsequently, the participants are asked to view a premium healthcare brand advertisement and answer questions on attitude and intention to purchase the brand.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Faculty of Economics and Business-Universitas Diponegoro for the DIPA FEB 2020 grant.  ... 
doi:10.25120/jre.1.1.2021.3816 fatcat:whwrpyrzkzbydbxq5lyr4c3emq
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