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Explaining Police Bias

Michael R. Smith, Geoffrey P. Alpert
2007 Criminal Justice and Behavior  
This article proposes a theory of individual police behavior that is grounded in socialpsychological research on stereotype formation and that assumes a nonmotivational but biased response to minority  ...  citizens by the police.  ...  For example, in a simulated performance-evaluation exercise, Feldman and Hilterman (1977) found no relationship between Whites' stereotypes of Blacks and their evaluations of Black workers.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0093854807304484 fatcat:jq2angv72nb5fiobomegypbxgq

How Private Insurers Regulate Public Police

John Rappaport
2016 Social Science Research Network  
., The Effect of Brief Situational Awareness Training in a Police Shooting Simulator: An Experimental Study, 18 MIL. PSYCHOL.  ...  Bishopp et al., An Examination of the Effect of a Policy Change on Police Use of TASERs, 26 CRIM. JUST.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2733783 fatcat:c64tlodxabd7pjwtqtdszfevd4

Organizational stressors and police performance

Jon M. Shane
2010 Journal of criminal justice  
Instead, organizational stressors may be the greatest source of stress in police officers.  ...  over a longer time period and over the course of different police administrations to provide better insight into how management practices correlate with stress and performance; and 3) widening the participant  ...  of a work shift that will include a shooting simulator, a driving simulator, a video simulation, and other practical/tactical exercises. • Surveys completed off-duty.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.05.008 fatcat:oqfv6cwiwffgzix7w2lnpzu6qe

Police Body-Worn Cameras

Seth W. Stoughton
2017 Social Science Research Network  
It does so by first reviewing the historical justifications for, implementation of, and lessons learned from an earlier iteration of police video recording technology: in-car cameras.  ...  Since the summer of 2014, community members, politicians, and police executives across the country have called for greater police accountability and improvements in police-community relations.  ...  I demonstrate the application of this phenomenon in the police context using a video of a simulated foot pursuit in which I play the role of an officer, wearing a Bodycam brand BWC, chasing a fleeing suspect  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3094334 fatcat:zaw4m5jl3jhxvebcjhfvwosvnq

The Aspiration of Scientific Policing

David Thacher
2018 Law and Social Inquiry  
Evidence-based policing embodies a utilitarian approach to policy evaluation, one that judges policies on the basis of their "net social costs and benefits" (p. 300).  ...  in some areas of the city but not in others (pp. 133-34); an early foot patrol experiment had no effect on crime but a more recent one did (Police Foundation 1981; p. 150); a police newsletter in 8.  ... 
doi:10.1111/lsi.12367 fatcat:24pp4m55qzfsvjp4cattykvobq

Police Reorganization and Crime: Evidence from Police Station Closures

Sebastian Blesse, André Diegmann
2018 Social Science Research Network  
We study the effects of police reallocation via station closures on municipal crime by exploiting a quasi-experiment where a centrally administered reform substantially reduced the number of police stations  ...  Policy makers often try to optimize local law enforcement by reorganizing police forces.  ...  In this paper, we provide new evidence on local crime effects of police station mergers in a quasi-experimental set-up.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3272123 fatcat:zqa4fviggvdhxdbsi2hv6efx5e

The Economics of Policing and Public Safety

Emily Owens, Bocar Ba
2021 Journal of Economic Perspectives  
Policing strategies that are socially efficient at the city level may be harmful at the local level, because the distribution of direct costs and benefits of police actions that reduce victimization is  ...  In the United States, the local misallocation of police resources is disproportionately borne by Black and Hispanic individuals.  ...  Evaluation of the quality of academy courses is generally based on cadet performance on an in-class exam, or virtual simulation environment, rather than the on-the-job performance of officers who completed  ... 
doi:10.1257/jep.35.4.3 fatcat:c6yjs32gf5gd3i66ulmtmhjaxm

An Insurance-Based Typology of Police Misconduct

John Rappaport
2016 Social Science Research Network  
In particular, the Article distinguishes varieties of police misconduct based on (1) the dollar-value of the legal claims to which they give rise and (2) the length of the delay between when the misconduct  ...  In assuming the financial risk of bad police behavior, the insurers become motivated to prevent it.  ...  ., The Effect of Brief Situational Awareness Training in a Police Shooting Simulator: An Experimental Study, 18 MILITARY PSYCH. S3 (2006). 16 William Micklus, Assoc. Dir., Upper Midwest Cmty.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2808106 fatcat:uwheymgehzcwpirkt4qrtgi7km

Reciprocity, Collective Action, and Community Policing

Dan M. Kahan
2002 California Law Review  
experimental in nature.  ...  Ledyard, Public Goods: A Survey of Experimental Research, in THE HANDBOOK OF EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS 111, 139-40 (John H. Kagel & Alvin E. Roth eds., 1995). 18.  ... 
doi:10.2307/3481363 fatcat:klpcygwzqncndb7hmuxbe3kha4

What Can Police Do to Reduce Crime, Disorder, and Fear? [chapter]

2007 International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice  
changes in the funding and administration of prison-based drug abuse programs in Florida, and perhaps elsewhere.  ...  The authors then give an overview of a range of methods that states have adopted in an attempt to structure the exercise of this discretion and evaluate their efficacy with respect to a variety of issues  ...  Appendix 17.A  ... 
doi:10.1201/9781420053883-17 fatcat:ue3g74iez5bkpgpxoqv6btv22i

Restoring trust in the police: Why female officers reduce suspicions of corruption

Tiffany D. Barnes, Emily Beaulieu, Gregory W. Saxton
2017 Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions  
Using a survey question about adding women to a police force, with an embedded experimental treatment, we examine three distinct stereotypes that might explain the power of women to reduce concerns about  ...  Recent studies show a clear link between women in government and reduced concerns about corruption.  ...  the police department in Mexico City recently hired a number of women in traffic enforcement to try to combat corruption in the department.  ... 
doi:10.1111/gove.12281 fatcat:pczez3aunzch3hxad25hdwbgna

Policy and Training Recommendations Related to Police Use of CEDs: Overview of Findings From a Comprehensive National Study

Geoffrey P. Alpert, Roger G. Dunham
2010 Police Quarterly  
This article helps us understand how and why injuries occur to police and citizens during these use-of-force events and recommends a comprehensive set of policies and principles for training police officers  ...  literature, into a comprehensive set of policy and training recommendations.  ...  Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article. Funding  ... 
doi:10.1177/1098611110373993 fatcat:ovbmedoae5brbmhwivtyu3nih4

Innovations in Policing: Meanings, Structures, and Processes

James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski
2011 Annual Review of Law and Social Science  
For example, Tolbert and Zucker demonstrated that early adopter cities of civil http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/evaluation/evidence-based.htm  ...  A host of environmental considerations might be evaluated for predicting police innovativeness.  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-102209-152835 fatcat:uwxhecx6x5bgfo4nfk5fsqmwwu

Proactive policing and equal treatment of ethnic-minority youths

Jörgen Simon Svensson, Sawitri Saharso
2014 Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy  
This contribution reports on an empirical investigation among 231 youths, interviewed on the street and in youth centres, to establish whether this proactive policing results in unequal treatment of ethnic  ...  Proactive policing aims at suppressing delinquency at an early stage.  ...  In addition, the authors want to express their gratitude to Annemieke Venderbosch and Kees Loef of Police and Science, and to Ruby Gerdsen, Slaven Piljic, Malou Puijenbroek, Omar Soums and Mahmut Sungur  ... 
doi:10.1080/10439463.2013.875015 fatcat:rzzde3weercrpid6eor37gpf5m

Risky Situations: Sources of Racial Disparity in Police Behavior

Marie Pryor, Kim Shayo Buchanan, Phillip Atiba Goff
2020 Annual Review of Law and Social Science  
Swencionis & Goff identified five situations that tend to increase the likelihood that an individual police officer may behave in a racially disparate way: discretion, inexperience, salience of crime,  ...  This article applies their framework to the realities of police work, identifying situations and assignments in which these factors are likely to influence officers' behavior.  ...  For example, clinical studies of weapon identification and shooting decisions have found that, in laboratory simulations, both civilians and police officers are more likely to shoot at an image of a Black  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042633 fatcat:72rkv37lgzhx3g6cswe5dnt5sy
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