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The authors thank the International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems (IMPRS-IS) for supporting Philipp Kratzer. ...arXiv:2007.10038v1 fatcat:a73cyc24wvgydi2o4znqedb7bi
Copyright © 2018 Schulz, Kratzer and Toussaint. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). ...doi:10.3389/fnbot.2018.00036 pmid:30022933 pmcid:PMC6039559 fatcat:vmfxehttajcvjfq5fgb3bc4xoa
As robots become more present in open human environments, it will become crucial for robotic systems to understand and predict human motion. Such capabilities depend heavily on the quality and availability of motion capture data. However, existing datasets of full-body motion rarely include 1) long sequences of manipulation tasks, 2) the 3D model of the workspace geometry, and 3) eye-gaze, which are all important when a robot needs to predict the movements of humans in close proximity. Hence,arXiv:2011.11552v1 fatcat:ct47bgqjcvbxho5n6qdpevsu2e
more »... this paper, we present a novel dataset of full-body motion for everyday manipulation tasks, which includes the above. The motion data was captured using a traditional motion capture system based on reflective markers. We additionally captured eye-gaze using a wearable pupil-tracking device. As we show in experiments, the dataset can be used for the design and evaluation of full-body motion prediction algorithms. Furthermore, our experiments show eye-gaze as a powerful predictor of human intent. The dataset includes 180 min of motion capture data with 1627 pick and place actions being performed. It is available at https://humans-to-robots-motion.github.io/mogaze and is planned to be extended to collaborative tasks with two humans in the near future.
Genetically modified mice are widely used in studies on human and animal physiology and pharmacology, including pain research. The experimental design usually includes comparisons of genetically modified mice with wild-type littermates, requiring biopsy material for genotyping and methods for unequivocal identification of individual mice. Ethical standards and, in some countries, legislation require that both needs are reached with a single procedure. Clipping of the most distal phalanx of updoi:10.1097/pr9.0000000000000740 pmid:31583355 pmcid:PMC6749918 fatcat:bkqdmh3re5gcnjljnjgdj4h23a
more »... two toes per paw (toe clipping) is the favored procedure in most research fields, but it may be problematic in sensory physiology and pain research. To systematically investigate whether toe-clipping influences later-in-life nociceptive sensitivity or the susceptibility to neuropathic or inflammatory hyperalgesia. We tested in male mice whether the clipping of 2 toes of a hind paw influences nociceptive sensitivities to noxious heat or cold, or to mechanical stimulation under baseline conditions, after peripheral nerve injury (chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve) or during peripheral inflammation induced by subcutaneous zymosan A injection. We tested not only for the presence of significant differences but also specifically addressed bioequivalence using the 2 one-sided t test procedure. We chose a threshold of 25% variation of the control value for nonequivalence, which is usually taken as a threshold for biological relevance in pain tests. Using this value, we found that for all conditions (non-neuropathic and non-inflamed, neuropathic and inflamed), nociceptive sensitivities significantly fell within the equivalence bounds of the non-toe-clipped control mice. These results suggest that toe clipping does not have long-term effects on nociceptive sensitivities and does not alter the susceptibility of male mice to neuropathic or inflammatory hyperalgesia.
The authors thank the International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems (IMPRS-IS) for supporting Philipp Kratzer. ...arXiv:1910.01843v2 fatcat:ugb5sqsa2nbhxc7c4j7bsle6oi
The reaction of equimolar amounts of propyne iminium trifluoromethanesulfonates 1a, b and isoquinoline yielded, after hydrolytic work-up, the N-(3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)isoquinolinium salts 4a, b in modest yields. Monitoring of the reaction by 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated the formation of salts 4, 3-isoquinolinio-substituted propene iminium salts 3, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylvinamidinium salts 5 as the major components. The expected aminoallenes (2-(3-(dimethylamino)allen-1- yl)isoquinoliniumdoi:10.5560/znb.2014-4032 fatcat:f5dlyt54ozbfdatbqspbpgcgxa
more »... tes) 2 could not be detected in the reaction solutions. It is possible, however, to trap the aminoallene intermediates in a polar [4+2] cycloaddition reaction, as shown by the isolation of 2 : 1 adducts 7c, d in good yield from cyclopropyl-substituted propyne iminium triflates 1c, d and isoquinoline. Hydride abstraction from 7c, d yielded the 2,4-dicyclopropyl-1,3- bis((dimethyliminio)(aryl)methyl)pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinolinium tris(triflates) 8c, d.
BMC Research Notes
Objective: Search for meaningful laboratory and anthropometric parameters in lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (lean NAFLD) in the general population. Out of 2445 subjects in a random population sample, we compared those who had a body mass index (BMI) < 25 and a fatty liver [lean NAFLD (LN), n = 5] with obese subjects who had a BMI > 30 but no fatty liver [non-NAFLD (NN), n = 27] in a follow-up examination. Ultrasonic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were collected. Results:doi:10.1186/s13104-018-3212-1 pmid:29409538 pmcid:PMC5801753 fatcat:zgo7uheeajcljokt4t4srviz5m
more »... were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the LN and the NN groups with respect to serum ferritin (199.2 ± 72.1 LN vs 106.0 ± 89.6 NN), haemoglobin (14.9 ± 0.8 LN vs 13.5 ± 1.2 NN), haematocrit (0.438 ± 0.019 LN vs 0.407 ± 0.035 NN) and Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (34 ± 0.6 LN vs 33.2 ± 0.8 NN). Significantly lower values of soluble transferrin receptor were measured in the LN group (2.8 ± 0.4 LN vs 3.8 ± 1.5 NN). In both groups, the measured HOMA-IR index (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index) (2.3; normal range ≤ 1) was abnormal. Mean cholesterol (6.2 ± 1.4 LN and 5.6 ± 1.1 NN) and low-density lipoprotein levels (3.8 ± 1.0 LN 3.4 ± 0.9 NN) were above the upper limit of normal in both groups, as was the mean triglycerides level in the LN group (2.6 ± 2.0). In summary, there are differences in parameters of iron and fat metabolism between subjects with LN and overweight subjects without fatty liver infiltration.
The authors thank the International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems (IMPRS-IS) for supporting Philipp Kratzer. ...arXiv:2104.08137v2 fatcat:fy2zvplcpvbgxf3ch46s2xga6q
We report on the synthesis and the properties of N, N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N",N"-pentamethyleneguanidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (PipGuan-TFSI). The cation of this novel ionic liquid combines guanidinium and piperidinium structural elements. We tested it for its viscosity, (Li-)ion conductivity, and also for its thermal and electrochemical stability. Furthermore, a 0.5 M solution of lithium TFSI in PipGuan-TFSI was tested as an electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. These experimentsdoi:10.1039/c3ra46118a fatcat:7agyllunbveappe3pnqj5ftneq
more »... ed cycles of Li deposition/dissolution on 10 stainless steel and (de-) intercalation into/from LiFePO 4 electrodes. The tests involving LiFePO 4 cathodes were performed at various Crates and temperatures for a better quantitative comparison to other electrolyte systems. We discuss in how far PipGuan-TFSI successfully combines the advantages of guanidinium and piperidinium ionic liquids for battery electrolyte applications. 65 PipGuan-TFSI. Fig. 1
This controlled clinical study aimed to investigate the impact of obesity on plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of meropenem. Methods: Obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) and age-/sex-matched nonobese (18.5 kg/m2 ≥ BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2) surgical patients received a short-term infusion of 1000-mg meropenem. Concentrations were determined via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) in the plasma and microdialysate from the interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous tissue up todoi:10.3390/antibiotics9120931 pmid:33371322 fatcat:cq5rmkry4vbl5pjemvcicpycmq
more »... ight h after dosing. An analysis was performed in the plasma and ISF by noncompartmental methods. Results: The maximum plasma concentrations in 15 obese (BMI 49 ± 11 kg/m2) and 15 nonobese (BMI 24 ± 2 kg/m2) patients were 54.0 vs. 63.9 mg/L (95% CI for difference: −18.3 to −3.5). The volume of distribution was 22.4 vs. 17.6 L, (2.6–9.1), but the clearance was comparable (12.5 vs. 11.1 L/h, −1.4 to 3.1), leading to a longer half-life (1.52 vs. 1.31 h, 0.05–0.37) and fairly similar area under the curve (AUC)8h (78.7 vs. 89.2 mg*h/L, −21.4 to 8.6). In the ISF, the maximum concentrations differed significantly (12.6 vs. 18.6 L, −16.8 to −0.8) but not the AUC8h (28.5 vs. 42.0 mg*h/L, −33.9 to 5.4). Time above the MIC (T > MIC) in the plasma and ISF did not differ significantly for MICs of 0.25–8 mg/L. Conclusions: In morbidly obese patients, meropenem has lower maximum concentrations and higher volumes of distribution. However, due to the slightly longer half-life, obesity has no influence on the T > MIC, so dose adjustments for obesity seem unnecessary.
Precision dosing of piperacillin/tazobactam in obese patients is compromised by sparse information on target-site exposure. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of current and alternative piperacillin/tazobactam dosages in obese and nonobese patients. Based on a prospective, controlled clinical trial in 30 surgery patients (15 obese/15 nonobese; 0.5-h infusion of 4 g/0.5 g piperacillin/tazobactam), piperacillin pharmacokinetics were characterized in plasma and at target-site (interstitialdoi:10.3390/pharmaceutics13091380 pmid:34575456 pmcid:PMC8464843 fatcat:rf4jak2v6fcanbuzciwg7zfasu
more »... uid of subcutaneous adipose tissue) via population analysis. Thereafter, multiple 3–4-times daily piperacillin/tazobactam short-term/prolonged (recommended by EUCAST) and continuous infusions were evaluated by simulation. Adequacy of therapy was assessed by probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target-attainment (PTA ≥ 90%) based on time unbound piperacillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during 24 h (%fT>MIC). Lower piperacillin target-site maximum concentrations in obese versus nonobese patients were explained by the impact of lean (approximately two thirds) and fat body mass (approximately one third) on volume of distribution. Simulated steady-state concentrations were 1.43-times, 95%CI = (1.27; 1.61), higher in plasma versus target-site, supporting targets of %fT>2×MIC instead of %fT>4×MIC during continuous infusion to avoid target-site concentrations constantly below MIC. In all obesity and renally impairment/hyperfiltration stages, at MIC = 16 mg/L, adequate PTA required prolonged (thrice-daily 4 g/0.5 g over 3.0 h at %fT>MIC = 50) or continuous infusions (24 g/3 g over 24 h following loading dose at %fT>MIC = 98) of piperacillin/tazobactam.
Nowadays highly accurate and mobile robots are able to perceive and manipulate their environment. Such robots can be used to assist humans in everyday tasks to reduce their workload. As a consequence, communication and interaction between humans and robots is becoming more important. In this thesis we present a system for human-robot collaboration for on-table tasks. The system is implemented for the PR2 research and development platform. Using the robot's depth sensor the objects on a tabledoi:10.18419/opus-12040 fatcat:dcjoeoxrtjhrnotjsyzv76mcwy
more »... detected and tracked during task execution. We analyzed on-table tasks in general and used the system to implement three different example tasks: a task that requires the human and the robot to order blocks by color, a task where a bridge is built and a task with a joint action. Additionally, we implemented five action-selection strategies for the robot: proactive, autonomous, reactive, human-requested and human-commands. We conducted a user study to compare the interaction modes during the bridge task and to evaluate the usage of the system in a real scenario. The answers of the participants indicate that for the bridge-building task, people prefer to interact with a robot using the proactive, autonomous or human-commands action-selection strategy rather than with the reactive or the human-requested strategy. The user study demonstrates that the system is useful for tabletop human-robot interaction with a real robot. Furthermore, the system can serve as a basis for further investigations in the area of human-robot interaction.
In today's multi-device computing environment a lot of different applications use notifications to inform the user about certain events such as new e-mails, available updates and more. This makes notifications an integral part of interaction with smart devices. However, related work showed that notifications have disruptive effects and are responsible for a large number of interruptions. Thus, with an increasing number of smart devices, including smartphones, tablets, smartwatches and desktopdoi:10.18419/opus-9446 fatcat:rx26elvhg5b7xfoobwrzbj7lya
more »... s, the negative effects of notifications are exacerbated in the omnipresent multi-device environments of today. As a consequence, there is the need to find a balance between keeping the user informed and confining the negative effects of notifications. For that reason, we developed a framework which is able to select a device or subset of devices to notify the user. Hence, we developed applications which collect contextual information and sensor data from the devices of the user. Furthermore, we conducted an in situ study using the Experience Sampling Method to gain insight into how devices in a multi-device environment are used and to find out which of the contextual information can be used to predict on which device or subset of devices the user would like to receive a notification. Our findings show that there is a strong correlation between the proximity of a device to a participant and whether a notification should be shown on that device. Furthermore, we found out that there are correlations between the collected information and the preferred displaying device for a notification. Based on our findings we implemented a server application for selecting the device or subset of devices as a proof of concept. As a result, the disruptive and interruptive effects caused by notifications in a multi-device computing environment can be minimized.
In dieser Diplomarbeit beschäftige ich mich mit der Europäischen Dimension der Unabhängigkeitspolitik der Scottish National Party. In meiner Analyse werden erstens der Einfluss der Europäischen Union auf die Unabhängigkeitsposition der Nationalpartei, zweitens die konkreten Umsetzungspläne der "Independence in Europe" Strategie und drittens der aus SNP Sicht bestehende Vorteil einer quasi-föderalen EU-Struktur im Gegensatz zur Dezentralisierungspolitik im Vereinigten Königreich behandelt. Seitdoi:10.25365/thesis.3701 fatcat:aoh7idu675h4no6wj63hhc3ov4
more »... em Jahr 2007 bildet die Scottish National Party eine Minderheitsregierung mit dem Ziel eine Volksabstimmung über die Unabhängigkeit Schottlands abzuhalten. Dazu veröffentlichte die Schottische Regierung im August 2007 die Gesetzesvorlage "National Conversation", die eine Volksabstimmung noch vor den nächsten Wahlen zum schottischen Regionalparlament vorsieht. Das Bestreben der Diplomarbeit ist es, am Beispiel Schottlands, die Verfassungs-positionen aus Sicht einer Nationalpartei zu diskutieren. Somit werden zwei Verfassungstypen, die Prinzipien der quasi-föderalen EU Struktur und das lange Zeit zentral und nun dezentral organisierte Vereinigte Königreich, gegenüber gestellt. Aus der Diplomarbeit geht hervor, dass sich die Scottish National Party von einer Europa-skeptischen zu einer Europa-freundlichen Partei entwickelt hat. Die Nationalpartei befürwortet heute die "Independence in Europe" Strategie. Schottland bekäme als eigenständiger EU Mitgliedsstaat mehr Entscheidungskompetenzen zugesprochen als heute durch die Devolution. Der Grund dafür ist die quasi-föderale EU-Struktur: Hauptentscheidungen werden in diesem System von den Mitgliedsstaaten getroffen. Im Vereinigten Königreich bleiben bedeutende Kompetenzen trotz der Dezentralisierungs-politik der zentralen Ebene vorbehalten.
This master thesis assesses the role of the Council of Europe as an international actor in the Georgian-Russian conflict of 2008 over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Its main goal is to examine the basis for the disputes in these two Georgian regions, analyse actions taken by Council of Europe actors within the first six months after the Five-day war in August 2008, and examine the characteristics of the Council of Europe as an international actor during this immediate response. An analysis ofdoi:10.25365/thesis.43237 fatcat:qnskzr7k2ncnpisem6lym3oujy
more »... il of Europe documents, secondary sources as well as seven expert interviews with (deputy) members of the Council of Europe and the Georgian Ambassador to Austria and the OSCE are conducted. Although Russia recognised Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent, sovereign states in 2008, this thesis concludes that none of Krasner's (1999) four concepts of sovereignty can be applied to these two regions. It is argued that the main authority and control functions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia are dominated or assisted by the Russia Federation. These conflicts in the South Caucasus leading to two wars during the 1990s and the Five-day war in 2008 were always over territory and not religion or ethnicity. The tensions between Georgia and the two regions intensified after the break up of the Soviet Union. The Council of Europe proved its role in the aftermath of the Five-day war as an international crisis actor, especially in the human rights dimension. This intergovernmental organisation condemned the outbreak of the war and violation of Articles 2 and 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights, namely the right to life and prohibition of torture. The Commissioner for Human Rights, for instance, negotiated hundreds of exchanges of prisoners and corpses. The key role of the Council of Europe lies in the co-operation with other international organisation such as the EU, OSCE and UN. This relationship was not only been formalized (exchange of views, joint meetings). In the aftermath of the Five-day war, the Council of Europe sta [...]
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