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Pharmacokinetics of the potent hallucinogen, salvinorin A in primates parallels the rapid onset and short duration of effects in humans

Jacob M. Hooker, Youwen Xu, Wynne Schiffer, Colleen Shea, Pauline Carter, Joanna S. Fowler
2008 NeuroImage  
Stephen Dewey, and Dr. Jean Logan for their helpful discussions and advice. We are grateful to Daniel Siebert for providing a reference sample of salvinorin A.  ...  Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Biological and Environmental Research.  ...  Our studies reveal an extraordinarily rapid uptake and short duration of salvinorin A in the brain.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.03.003 pmid:18434204 pmcid:PMC2464626 fatcat:agwblgg3jjeb3cswn6vdlh4ese

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum: Clinical and Forensic Aspects

Andreia Machado Brito-da-Costa, Diana Dias-da-Silva, Nelson G. M. Gomes, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Áurea Madureira-Carvalho
2021 Pharmaceuticals  
Salvinorin A is rapidly distributed, with accumulation in the brain, and quickly eliminated. Its pharmacokinetic parameters parallel well with the short-lived psychoactive and physiological effects.  ...  The main bioactive compound underlying the hallucinogenic effects, salvinorin A, is a non-nitrogenous diterpenoid with high affinity and selectivity for the k-opioid receptor.  ...  The mean duration of subjective effects reported by users was 15.52 min, with a rapid onset.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ph14020116 pmid:33546518 pmcid:PMC7913753 fatcat:fype3s32kbagfp2wto7xtyt4m4

Here Today, Gone Tomorrow…and Back Again? A Review of Herbal Marijuana Alternatives (K2, Spice), Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts), Kratom, Salvia divinorum, Methoxetamine, and Piperazines

Christopher D. Rosenbaum, Stephanie P. Carreiro, Kavita M. Babu
2012 Journal of Medical Toxicology  
Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects.  ...  Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms.  ...  A rapid effect with short duration is characteristic of salvia with reported onset in 5-10 min (buccal absorption) or 30 s (inhalation).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13181-011-0202-2 pmid:22271566 pmcid:PMC3550220 fatcat:kf7lydtxc5g7dgiw22oafd2dta

Neuropharmacology of the Naturally Occurring -Opioid Hallucinogen Salvinorin A

C. W. Cunningham, R. B. Rothman, T. E. Prisinzano
2011 Pharmacological Reviews  
Acknowledgments This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse [Grant DA-018151] (to T.E.P.) and, in part, by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on  ...  Authorship Contributions Wrote or contributed to the writing of the manuscript: Cunningham, Rothman, and Prisinzano.  ...  As noted above, salvinorin A is a potent hallucinogen and selective KOP agonist that exerts its effects with a rapid onset of action and abrupt loss of activity shortly after administration.  ... 
doi:10.1124/pr.110.003244 pmid:21444610 pmcid:PMC3082450 fatcat:hxzyqzgvvjeg3npkf2buxlmkhq

Impact of pharmacological manipulation of the k-opioid receptor system on self-grooming and anhedonic-like behaviors in mice

Eduardo R Butelman, Bryan D. McElroy, Thomas Edward Prisinzano, Mary Jeanne Jeanne Kreek
2019 Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics  
The selectivity, potency, and duration of action of two relatively short-acting κ-antagonists, LY2444296 [(S)-3-fluoro-4-(4-((2-(3-fluorophenyl) pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenoxy)benzamide] and LY2795050  ...  The κ-agonist salvinorin A (0.56-1.8 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent decreases in self-grooming, a marker of anhedonia.  ...  Linda Rorick−Kehn and the Lilly Co. for their kind donation of the LY2444296 hydrochloride. We are grateful to Ms. Amelia Dunn for help with the preparation for these studies, and to Dr. Brian Reed.  ... 
doi:10.1124/jpet.119.256354 pmid:30975792 pmcid:PMC6538891 fatcat:ch2bw4tyibdm7p3fijefxrhv6a

Psychedelics

D. E. Nichols
2016 Pharmacological Reviews  
Acknowledgments The author thanks Professor Alexandre Franco (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil) for critically reading the material in this review discussing  ...  fMRI data and interpretation.  ...  Stiefel et al. ( 2014 ) presented a further argument to support a key role of the claustrum in consciousness, by considering the very potent hallucinogenic effects of salvinorin A.  ... 
doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478 pmid:26841800 pmcid:PMC4813425 fatcat:skw2cun4ajaptptt44dpz56uha

Panel Session Co-Morbid Pain and Addiction: Novel Treatments

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology  
The report on schizophrenia is based on a review of paradigms used in drug discovery, ascertainment of key factors which impede innovation, a review of clinical effects of drugs, and a review of animal  ...  and human models which may be informative in early proof of principle/concept studies.  ...  The Time Course of Antipsychotics Versus Placebo: On Overall Efficacy, Positive, Negative and Cognitive Symptoms John M. Davis*  ... 
doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301265 fatcat:6odqjmshuncm5muxk5g5knprui

Poster Session III

2004 Neuropsychopharmacology  
We compared the reinforcing effects of zolpidem to midazolam, a non-selective BZ with similar pharmacokinetics to zolpidem, using a behavioral economic model called "labor supply".  ...  Surprisingly few studies have examined the effects of amphetamine-type monoamine-releasing agents on plasma 5-HT in intact animals or humans.  ...  Most studies of the impact of early adversity on non-human primate development have focused on the effects of prolonged maternal and social deprivation early in life.  ... 
doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300648 fatcat:vw22deytbbeyrpwv7zwkwotqgm

ACNP 59th Annual Meeting: Poster Session II

2020 Neuropsychopharmacology  
In the current analysis, an initial dataset of 363 participants completed MRI scans within a)~2-weeks, b)~6-months, or c) both~2-weeks and~6-months post-trauma.  ...  The structure of human neural circuits is critical for neurocognitive processes that maintain healthy emotional function.  ...  Keywords Salvinorin A (a selective KOR agonist and atypical hallucinogen with no 5-HT2AR affinity) produces rapid, transient, and profound shifts in subjective experience that are similar to the effects  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41386-020-00891-6 pmid:33279935 pmcid:PMC7735200 fatcat:5nfeakhcfnhpnjyuvli34vyxxq

Poster Session III

2010 Neuropsychopharmacology  
acute administration of drugs whose effects are thought to resemble psychosis, such as phencyclidine (PCP), and do not, in fact, represent what occurs with the onset of psychosis.  ...  model the neuroadaptive processes in humans that lead to abnormal brain function and psychosis.  ...  Taken together, these data show that the D2 DAR is present in lipid rafts, as well as other membrane fractions, and that MCD treatment effectively disrupts lipid rafts in HEK293T cells.  ... 
doi:10.1038/npp.2010.218 fatcat:i5knteqsgveybffza7g6b4iqei