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Persistent Anti-Muslim Bias in Large Language Models [article]

Abubakar Abid, Maheen Farooqi, James Zou
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We demonstrate that GPT-3, a state-of-the-art contextual language model, captures persistent Muslim-violence bias.  ...  It has been observed that large-scale language models capture undesirable societal biases, e.g. relating to race and gender; yet religious bias has been relatively unexplored.  ...  Persistent Anti-Muslim Bias in Large Language Models Abubakar Abid1 , Maheen Farooqi2 , James Zou3∗  ... 
arXiv:2101.05783v2 fatcat:qwc4qo2idzaafjnrjiihjqbdhy

Debiased Large Language Models Still Associate Muslims with Uniquely Violent Acts [article]

Babak Hemmatian, Lav R. Varshney
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Our results show the need for additional debiasing of large language models to address higher-order schemas and associations.  ...  Recent work demonstrates a bias in the GPT-3 model towards generating violent text completions when prompted about Muslims, compared with Christians and Hindus.  ...  Content analysis of violent completions showed the importance of using more nuanced measures for violence and bias, while also highlighting the sophisticated nature of stereotypes in large language models  ... 
arXiv:2208.04417v2 fatcat:pqdo3ialx5dchbssskktd24niu

Which Integration Policies Work? The Heterogeneous Impact of National Institutions on Immigrants' Labor Market Attainment in Europe

Lucinda Platt, Javier Polavieja, Jonas Radl
2021 International Migration Review  
is, unskilled male immigrants and Muslim immigrant men.  ...  As this article suggests, anti-discrimination policies can foster immigrants' labor market success, yet these policies currently fail to reach those who face the strongest anti-immigrant sentiments — that  ...  , and sampled recent immigrants are likely to be biased toward those with greater fluency in the destination-country language (Tegegne and Glanville 2019).  ... 
doi:10.1177/01979183211032677 fatcat:yks2ct47kzc3jo7ao5zxfygg7y

#ISISisNotIslam or #DeportAllMuslims?

Walid Magdy, Kareem Darwish, Norah Abokhodair, Afshin Rahimi, Timothy Baldwin
2016 Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Web Science - WebSci '16  
We found that pre-event network interactions can predict someone's attitudes towards Muslims with 82% macro F-measure, even in the absence of prior mentions of Islam, Muslims, or related terms.  ...  In this study, we focus on the attitudes of US Twitter users towards Islam and Muslims subsequent to the tragic Paris terrorist attacks that occurred on November 13, 2015.  ...  However, as the primary term, Paris, is language independent for most languages use Latin alphabet, in practice, we were able to retrieve data for a large number of languages.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2908131.2908150 dblp:conf/websci/MagdyDARB16 fatcat:2sy4nw75bzcn3i62clxamo3ox4

Predicting Online Islamophobic Behavior after #ParisAttacks

Kareem Darwish, Walid Magdy, Afshin Rahimi, Timothy Baldwin, Norah Abokhodair
2018 Journal of Web Science  
One of the trending debates related to the attacks concerned possible association between Muslims and terrorism, which resulted in a worldwide debate between those attacking and those defending Islam.  ...  In our study, we collected a set of 8.36 million tweets related to the Paris attacks within the 50 hours following the event, of which we identified over 900k tweets mentioning Islam and Muslims.  ...  However, as the primary term, Paris, is language independent for most languages that use the Latin alphabet, in practice, we were able to retrieve data from a large number of languages.  ... 
doi:10.1561/106.00000013 dblp:journals/jws/DarwishMRBA18 fatcat:j6dtiw4snvfq3dpp33drfjrioe

Americans preferred Syrian refugees who are female, English-speaking, and Christian on the eve of Donald Trump's election

Claire L. Adida, Adeline Lo, Melina R. Platas, Bryan L. Sykes
2019 PLoS ONE  
Finally, we find that anti-Muslim bias in refugee preferences varies in magnitude across key subgroups, though it prevails across all sample demographics.  ...  We find that the preference for female refugees is not driven by the desire to exclude Muslim male refugees, casting doubt that American preferences at the time were motivated by security concerns.  ...  In the below analysis, only the anti-Muslim bias was preregistered. All other tests and results are pattern discoveries.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222504 pmid:31600224 pmcid:PMC6786519 fatcat:xgugyh7vynhbtlc7gieg2mfff4

Discourses of Dehumanization: Enemy Construction and Canadian Media Complicity in the Framing of the War on Terror

Erin Steuter, Deborah Wills
2009 Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition  
An analysis of the data reveals a pattern of dehumanizing language applied to enemy leaders as well as Arab and Muslim citizens at large in the media's uncritical reproduction of metaphors that linguistically  ...  Particularly, the paper argues that the Canadian media have participated in mediating constructions of Islam and Muslims, mobilizing familiar metaphors in representations that fabricate an enemy-Other  ...  National Council on Canada-Arab Relations executive director Mazen Chouaib has stated that the National Post and its parent company harbour an anti-Muslim and anti-Arab bias (Frum, 2004, October 1) .  ... 
doaj:9d160a450d4c480d8ee02a4049fd2e7f fatcat:idkkqmjlondyjirbvwc24kooy4

Overcoming the "Other's" Stigma: Arab and Muslim Representations in US Media and Academia

Lanouar Ben Hafsa
2019 International Journal of Social Science Studies  
The present work focuses on Arab and Muslim representations in U.S. media and academia.  ...  , how both spheres of influence (media and academia) mimic the same political language and work in conjunction to propagate a Eurocentric culture.  ...  The same anti-Muslim narrative persisted through the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras.  ... 
doi:10.11114/ijsss.v7i5.4446 fatcat:lnzg2uq7wvdkpakfkpcfo7fs2y

Stigmatization and racial selection after September 11, 2001: self-identity among Arab and Islamic Americans

Patrick L Mason, Andrew Matella
2014 IZA Journal of Migration  
This paper uses self-identification as white as its measure of acculturation and the fraction of all hate crimes directed at Muslims as its measure of stigmatization after 9/11.  ...  The Al Qaeda attacks clearly demarcate a period in which there was a structural increase in the intensity of US stigmatization of persons with Islamic religious affiliation and Arab ethnicity.  ...  For each state and each period, "Anti-Muslim Hate Crimes -Percent" includes all the period's single-bias anti-Muslim hate crimes divided by the period's total hate crimes.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s40176-014-0020-9 fatcat:26lehk2xcncnxmwdocyulqofwe

Cumulative disadvantage? The role of race compared to ethnicity, religion, and non-white phenotype in explaining hiring discrimination in the U.S. labour market

Ruta Yemane
2020 Research in Social Stratification and Mobility  
Thus, there is no evidence for a general discrimination of non-Christians, but only for a specific anti-Muslim bias.  ...  Second, I find no evidence for general discrimination against non-Christians, but only for a specific anti-Muslim bias. This bias is stronger for phenotypical whites than for phenotypical non-whites.  ...  Appendix Appendix Figure 1 : Differences in callback rates by immigrant generation Appendix Figure 2 : Differences in callback rates by race and ethnicity with aggregated ethnic groups Note:  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.rssm.2020.100552 fatcat:mmlikju26ndmtfasi4hs7gxul4

An Overview of Islamophobia as Othering

Ahmad Saeed
2019 Global Mass Communication Review  
The concept of othering means to consider the Muslims community as others in the society, especially in the western countries.  ...  In fact, hundreds year before the concept of othering was used against Muslims of Spain, whom were forced to immigrate neighbor countries. Nowadays this black history once again has been repeating.  ...  This framing is biased on two accounts. First, there is an intergroup bias insofar as the issue of gender discrimination is more prevalent in stories about Muslim societies than Non-Muslim societies.  ... 
doi:10.31703/gmcr.2019(iv-i).01 fatcat:j5fj27tm2fh75grmpj7tj6vhtu

Why religion? Immigrant groups as objects of political claims on immigration and civic integration in Western Europe, 1995–2009

Joost Berkhout, Didier Ruedin
2017 Acta Politica  
We find that Muslim-related claims-making is associated with the parliamentary presence of anti-immigrant parties and the policy topic under discussion.  ...  When they do, why do they in some countries focus on Muslim immigrants rather than national or other groups?  ...  These models persist over time and are historically institutionalized legacies of earlier policy decisions (Duyvendak and Scholten, 2011, p. 333) .  ... 
doi:10.1057/ap.2016.1 fatcat:p5mrxyd2o5bn3iv7tq5cbvuvje

Popularizing Islamophobia: Dissemination of Pakophobic Myths in I am Malala.

Aisha Jadoon, Kanwal Zahra
2019 Global Social Sciences Review  
By admitting Islamophobia as an urgent issue, recent Western scholarship attends to theidentification of causes responsible for the continuous surge in anti-Muslim sentiment since 9/11.Yet these discourses  ...  As a justification, this paper pointsout ethnographic generalizations as testimonials to the propagation ofIslamophobic myths in I am Malala.  ...  Introduction Considering Islamophobia as an urgent issue, Nathan raises a set of related questions: "What then is the cause of a steady and persistent rise in anti-Muslim sentiment over the years?  ... 
doi:10.31703/gssr.2019(iv-iv).61 fatcat:7ilmurkt25ddhg4znmpm6ajwja

The Majority-Minority Divide in Attitudes toward Internal Migration: Evidence from Mumbai

Nikhar Gaikwad, Gareth Nellis
2016 American Journal of Political Science  
Minority communities facing persistent discrimination view in-migration by co-ethnics as a means of enlarging their demographic and electoral base, thereby achieving "safety in numbers."  ...  We implemented a novel, face-to-face survey experiment on a representative sample of the population of Mumbai to elucidate the causes of anti-migrant hostility.  ...  The city police is seen as heavily biased toward Hindus (Hansen 2001, 127) .  ... 
doi:10.1111/ajps.12276 fatcat:o2pkpgoti5egbkpe2uv7g4qpim

Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic to the Asian and Asian American Communities: Persistent History, Collective Resistance, and Intersectional Solidarity

Serena Chang, Tess Chang, Tiffany Nguyen, Nimisha Prasad
2021 Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research  
Th e essay then documents the persistent history of stereotyping and racism to Asian/American communities particularly in the midst of larger changes in political, national security, or public health situations  ...  Th e research asks what the impacts of COVID-19 are to Asian/American communities, how COVID-19 anti-Asian racism is unique or not unique, how the Asian American communities have collectively responded  ...  In addition, the model minority myth stereotype has become a more common and subtle form of anti-Asian bias.  ... 
doi:10.7771/2158-4052.1527 fatcat:npgesaml35akljvsbzjovevguq
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