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Linking Obesity with Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology and Mechanistic Insights

Pengfei Ye, Yue Xi, Zhiying Huang, Pengfei Xu
2020 Cancers  
The incidence of obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC) has risen rapidly in recent decades. More than 650 million obese and 2 billion overweight individuals are currently living in the world. CRC is the third most common cancer. Obesity is regarded as one of the key environmental risk factors for the pathogenesis of CRC. In the present review, we mainly focus on the epidemiology of obesity and CRC in the world, the United States, and China. We also summarize the molecular mechanisms linking
more » ... y to CRC in different aspects, including nutriology, adipokines and hormones, inflammation, gut microbiota, and bile acids. The unmet medical needs for obesity-related CRC are still remarkable. Understanding the molecular basis of these associations will help develop novel therapeutic targets and approaches for the treatment of obesity-related CRC.
doi:10.3390/cancers12061408 pmid:32486076 pmcid:PMC7352519 fatcat:lj54l3cgj5bmbegc6ydq4j4dfu

A Critical Analysis of Image-based Camera Pose Estimation Techniques [article]

Meng Xu, Youchen Wang, Bin Xu, Jun Zhang, Jian Ren, Stefan Poslad, Pengfei Xu
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Camera, and associated with its objects within the field of view, localization could benefit many computer vision fields, such as autonomous driving, robot navigation, and augmented reality (AR). In this survey, we first introduce specific application areas and the evaluation metrics for camera localization pose according to different sub-tasks (learning-based 2D-2D task, feature-based 2D-3D task, and 3D-3D task). Then, we review common methods for structure-based camera pose estimation
more » ... es, absolute pose regression and relative pose regression approaches by critically modelling the methods to inspire further improvements in their algorithms such as loss functions, neural network structures. Furthermore, we summarise what are the popular datasets used for camera localization and compare the quantitative and qualitative results of these methods with detailed performance metrics. Finally, we discuss future research possibilities and applications.
arXiv:2201.05816v1 fatcat:5wskhyskivh5bh67icaj3pc5i4

Silicon-Based Optoelectronics Enhanced by Hybrid Plasmon Polaritons: Bridging Dielectric Photonics and Nanoplasmonics

Pengfei Sun, Pengfei Xu, Kejian Zhu, Zhiping Zhou
2021 Photonics  
Silicon-based optoelectronics large-scale integrated circuits have been of interest to the world in recent decades due to the need for higher complexity, larger link capacity, and lower cost. Surface plasmons are electromagnetic waves that propagate along the interface between a conductor and a dielectric, which can be confined several orders smaller than the wavelength in a vacuum and offers the potential for minimizing photonic circuits to the nanoscale. However, plasmonic waveguides are
more » ... ly accompanied by substantial propagation loss because metals always exhibit significant resistive heating losses when interacting with light. Therefore, it is better to couple silicon-based optoelectronics and plasmonics and bridge the gap between micro-photonics and nanodevices, especially some nano-electronic devices. In this review, we discuss methods to enhance silicon-based optoelectronics by hybrid plasmon polaritons and summarize some recently reported designs. It is believed that by utilizing the strong light confinement of plasmonics, we can overcome the conventional diffraction limit of light and further improve the integration of optoelectronic circuits.
doi:10.3390/photonics8110482 doaj:0c6dbe3f72ef4a0ea0bd02d472be1355 fatcat:tankenp7wneu5oenzzz5tmvjtu

Asymmetrical adaptations to increases and decreases in environmental volatility [article]

Jie Xu, Nicholas Van Dam, Yuejia Luo, André Aleman, Hui Ai, Pengfei Xu
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license available under a Xu et al.  ...  The copyright holder for this preprint Brain adaptations to volatility Xu et al. .  ...  Brain adaptations to volatility Xu et al. Author contributions Conceptualization: P.X., H.A Methodology: P.X., J.X Investigation: J.X Supervision: P.X., H.A Writing-original draft: J.X., N.T.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.07.30.454486 fatcat:nvw6pfaz2bakrb5zfakdxamrbu

Sequential hadronization in heavy ion collisions [article]

Jiaxing Zhao, Shuzhe Shi, Nu Xu, Pengfei Zhuang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Heavy flavor supplies a chance to constrain and improve the hadronization mechanism. We have established a sequential coalescence model with charm conservation and applied it to the charmed hadron production in heavy ion collisions. The charm conservation enhances the earlier hadron production and suppresses the later production. This relative enhancement (suppression) changes significantly the ratios between charmed hadrons in heavy ion collisions.
arXiv:2004.12305v1 fatcat:yl775vpwrzbmnjnmn7b2r7mmci

Closing the Generalization Gap of Cross-silo Federated Medical Image Segmentation [article]

An Xu, Wenqi Li, Pengfei Guo, Dong Yang, Holger Roth, Ali Hatamizadeh, Can Zhao, Daguang Xu, Heng Huang, Ziyue Xu
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Cross-silo federated learning (FL) has attracted much attention in medical imaging analysis with deep learning in recent years as it can resolve the critical issues of insufficient data, data privacy, and training efficiency. However, there can be a generalization gap between the model trained from FL and the one from centralized training. This important issue comes from the non-iid data distribution of the local data in the participating clients and is well-known as client drift. In this work,
more » ... we propose a novel training framework FedSM to avoid the client drift issue and successfully close the generalization gap compared with the centralized training for medical image segmentation tasks for the first time. We also propose a novel personalized FL objective formulation and a new method SoftPull to solve it in our proposed framework FedSM. We conduct rigorous theoretical analysis to guarantee its convergence for optimizing the non-convex smooth objective function. Real-world medical image segmentation experiments using deep FL validate the motivations and effectiveness of our proposed method.
arXiv:2203.10144v1 fatcat:eowhmismfzd6nbt2qmgkyicerq

Redundant Loads: A Software Inefficiency Indicator [article]

Pengfei Su, Shasha Wen, Hailong Yang, Milind Chabbi, Xu Liu
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Modern software packages have become increasingly complex with millions of lines of code and references to many external libraries. Redundant operations are a common performance limiter in these code bases. Missed compiler optimization opportunities, inappropriate data structure and algorithm choices, and developers' inattention to performance are some common reasons for the existence of redundant operations. Developers mainly depend on compilers to eliminate redundant operations. However,
more » ... lers' static analysis often misses optimization opportunities due to ambiguities and limited analysis scope; automatic optimizations to algorithmic and data structural problems are out of scope. We develop LoadSpy, a whole-program profiler to pinpoint redundant memory load operations, which are often a symptom of many redundant operations. The strength of LoadSpy exists in identifying and quantifying redundant load operations in programs and associating the redundancies with program execution contexts and scopes to focus developers' attention on problematic code. LoadSpy works on fully optimized binaries, adopts various optimization techniques to reduce its overhead, and provides a rich graphic user interface, which make it a complete developer tool. Applying LoadSpy showed that a large fraction of redundant loads is common in modern software packages despite highest levels of automatic compiler optimizations. Guided by LoadSpy, we optimize several well-known benchmarks and real-world applications, yielding significant speedups.
arXiv:1902.05462v1 fatcat:uu3c2jsyffeuxgvojyytalhdhe

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation for Object Detection [article]

Xingxu Yao, Sicheng Zhao, Pengfei Xu, Jufeng Yang
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Xu et al. [48] develop a deep cocktail network (DCTN) to train a classifier for each source domain and combine the predictions of different classifiers weighted by perplexity scores.  ... 
arXiv:2106.15793v1 fatcat:7bq2o3g6t5h73hd4oriwymgfem

Financial Development and Aggregate Saving Rates: A Hump-Shaped Relationship

Pengfei Wang, Lifang Xu, Zhiwei Xu
2012 Social Science Research Network  
This study has documented a hump-shaped empirical relationship between ...nancial development and the national saving rate across 102 countries. An incomplete-market model featuring both heterogeneous households and heterogeneous ...rms is provided to explain this hump-shaped relationship. The key insight of the model is that ...nancial development tends to reduce the precautionary-saving incentives of households but increase ...rms'ability to borrow and invest. As a result, the aggregate
more » ... rate may rise initially with ...nancial development because of greater investment by ...rms, but then declines with further ...nancial development because of substantially reduced precautionary savings by households. The model also predicts that the market interest rate lies substantially below the rate of return to capital in emerging economies, but the gap diminishes with ...nancial development, as observed in the data.
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2085277 fatcat:k5hb3lqaxffrhfrexdxvjtgdwy

Peptidomic Analysis of Endometrial Tissue from Patients with Ovarian Endometriosis

Yunping Xue, Pengfei Xu, Sujuan Xu, Kai Xue, Lingling Xu, Jie Chen, Juan Xu, Xiaoyan Shi, Qian Li, Lin Gu
2018 Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry  
Background/Aims: Ovarian endometriosis (OvE) is ovarian cyst that is lined with endometrial tissue. They are found in 17-44% of women with endometriosis. Their clinical manifestations include pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility. Although the incidence of OvE has increased yearly, the exact pathogenesis of OvE is still unclear. We used peptidomics, an emerging branch of proteomics, to identify differentially expressed peptides in order to determine the possible roles of these
more » ... peptides in the pathogenesis of OvE. Methods: The ectopic and eutopic endometria of OvE were used to extract peptides with 10-kDa molecular weight cutoff filters, and the peptide precursor proteins were then identified with PEAKS software, followed by quantification with the TMT labeling method and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Gene ontology (GO) analysis, pathway analysis, SMART, and SABLE were used to study the possible functions of these peptide according to their precursor proteins' function. The effects of peptides derived from VCAM-1 (PDFV) on endometrial stromal cell (ESC) migration and invasion were examined with wound healing assays and Transwell assays and the expression of E-cadherin was detected by western blotting. Results: A total of 491 peptides were identified with abundant differences between the two groups of samples (p < 0.05, and absolute fold change ≥ 2). SMART and SABLE database showed that 42 of the 491 peptides were located in the conserved structural domains of their protein precursors and contained secondary structure and, among them, 2 peptides' precursor proteins were associated with the cell proliferation. Additionally, 5 peptides' precursor proteins were associated with endometriosis. Our study confirmed that PDFV promoted ESC migration and invasion and reduced E-cadherin expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion: PDFV and its precursor protein VCAM-1 may be involved in the process of OvE formation by reducing the expression of E-cadherin. The peptidomics analysis provides new insight for future studies of the mechanisms of OvE development.
doi:10.1159/000489753 pmid:29763921 fatcat:2op2zgocxfaffhmcq43obra63u

Performance Evaluation of Deep Learning Tools in Docker Containers [article]

Pengfei Xu, Shaohuai Shi, Xiaowen Chu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
With the success of deep learning techniques in a broad range of application domains, many deep learning software frameworks have been developed and are being updated frequently to adapt to new hardware features and software libraries, which bring a big challenge for end users and system administrators. To address this problem, container techniques are widely used to simplify the deployment and management of deep learning software. However, it remains unknown whether container techniques bring
more » ... ny performance penalty to deep learning applications. The purpose of this work is to systematically evaluate the impact of docker container on the performance of deep learning applications. We first benchmark the performance of system components (IO, CPU and GPU) in a docker container and the host system and compare the results to see if there's any difference. According to our results, we find that computational intensive jobs, either running on CPU or GPU, have small overhead indicating docker containers can be applied to deep learning programs. Then we evaluate the performance of some popular deep learning tools deployed in a docker container and the host system. It turns out that the docker container will not cause noticeable drawbacks while running those deep learning tools. So encapsulating deep learning tool in a container is a feasible solution.
arXiv:1711.03386v1 fatcat:l54t5id2cnffpc6g6s36pea77q

CLIP2Video: Mastering Video-Text Retrieval via Image CLIP [article]

Han Fang, Pengfei Xiong, Luhui Xu, Yu Chen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We present CLIP2Video network to transfer the image-language pre-training model to video-text retrieval in an end-to-end manner. Leading approaches in the domain of video-and-language learning try to distill the spatio-temporal video features and multi-modal interaction between videos and languages from a large-scale video-text dataset. Different from them, we leverage pretrained image-language model, simplify it as a two-stage framework with co-learning of image-text and enhancing temporal
more » ... tions between video frames and video-text respectively, make it able to train on comparatively small datasets. Specifically, based on the spatial semantics captured by Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP) model, our model involves a Temporal Difference Block to capture motions at fine temporal video frames, and a Temporal Alignment Block to re-align the tokens of video clips and phrases and enhance the multi-modal correlation. We conduct thorough ablation studies, and achieve state-of-the-art performance on major text-to-video and video-to-text retrieval benchmarks, including new records of retrieval accuracy on MSR-VTT, MSVD and VATEX.
arXiv:2106.11097v1 fatcat:rsy5ezan6nfljajefczxp5pejy

Margin distribution based bagging pruning

Zongxia Xie, Yong Xu, Qinghua Hu, Pengfei Zhu
2012 Neurocomputing  
Yong Xu received his B.S. and M.S. degrees at Air Force Institute of Meteorology (China) in 1994 and 1997, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2011.12.030 fatcat:6ltussa54rculewdxmybppmluy

Adaptive Prompt Learning-based Few-Shot Sentiment Analysis [article]

Pengfei Zhang and Tingting Chai and Yongdong Xu
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Values with * are retrieved from Xu et al. [24] Method FineTuning PET LM-BFF P-tuning EFL AP Accuracy 65.4%* 86.7%* 85.6%* 88.3%* 84.9%* 88.7% Table 4 : 4 Comparison of experimental results PET AP Pre-AP  ... 
arXiv:2205.07220v1 fatcat:jl6okv5cuzb7jgea2q5nxfitmi

Chemoselective Polymerization of Polar Divinyl Monomers with Rare-Earth/Phosphine Lewis Pairs

Pengfei Xu, Lei Wu, Liqiu Dong, Xin Xu
2018 Molecules  
This work reports the chemoselective polymerization of polar divinyl monomers, including allyl methacrylate (AMA), vinyl methacrylate (VMA), and 4-vinylbenzyl methacrylate (VBMA), by using simple Lewis pairs comprised of homoleptic rare-earth (RE) aryloxide complexes RE(OAr) 3 (RE = Sc (1), Y (2), Sm (3), La (4), Ar = 2,6-tBu 2 C 6 H 3 ) and phosphines PR 3 (R = Ph, Cy, Et, Me). Catalytic activities of polymerizations relied heavily upon the cooperation of Lewis acid and Lewis base components.
more » ... he produced polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and often had a narrow molecular weight distribution. A highly syndiotactic poly(allyl methacrylate) (PAMA) with rr~88% could be obtained by the scandium complex 1/PEt 3 pair at −30 • C. In the case of poly(4-vinylbenzyl methacrylate) (PVBMA), it could be post-functionalized with PhCH 2 SH. Mechanistic study, including the isolation of the zwitterionic active species and the end-group analysis, revealed that the frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-type addition was the initiating step in the polymerization. Molecules 2018, 23, 360 2 of 9 by using the intramolecular cationic rare-earth (RE)-based Lewis pairs [29] . Subsequently, enhanced polymerization activity and extended monomer scope were realized by utilizing simple intermolecular Lewis pairs which are composed of homoleptic rare-earth metal tris-aryloxides RE(OAr) 3 and phosphines PR 3 [30] . We herein found that such rare-earth/phosphine systems also enabled the chemoselective polymerization of polar divinyl monomers, affording polymers with the retention of pendant C=C bonds (Scheme 1). These results will be described and discussed in this article. Molecules 2018, 23, x 2 of 9 and its cyclic analogues by using the intramolecular cationic rare-earth (RE)-based Lewis pairs [29] . Subsequently, enhanced polymerization activity and extended monomer scope were realized by utilizing simple intermolecular Lewis pairs which are composed of homoleptic rare-earth metal tris-aryloxides RE(OAr)3 and phosphines PR3 [30] . We herein found that such rare-earth/phosphine systems also enabled the chemoselective polymerization of polar divinyl monomers, affording polymers with the retention of pendant C=C bonds (Scheme 1). These results will be described and discussed in this article. Scheme 1. Rare-earth (RE)-based Lewis pairs and monomers examined in this work. AMA: allyl methacrylate; VBMA: 4-vinylbenzyl methacrylate; VMA: vinyl methacrylate.
doi:10.3390/molecules23020360 pmid:29419778 fatcat:6cb4w7kepjfj5ffo6zj7psibci
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