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Drawing Graphs in Euler Diagrams [chapter]

Paul Mutton, Peter Rodgers, Jean Flower
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We describe a method for drawing graph-enhanced Euler diagrams using a three stage method. The first stage is to lay out the underlying Euler diagram using a multicriteria optimizing system. The second stage is to find suitable locations for nodes in the zones of the Euler diagram using a force based method. The third stage is to minimize edge crossings and total edge length by swapping the location of nodes that are in the same zone with a multicriteria hill climbing method. We show a working
more » ... ersion of the software that draws spider diagrams. Spider diagrams represent logical expressions by superimposing graphs upon an Euler diagram. This application requires an extra step in the drawing process because the embedded graphs only convey information about the connectedness of nodes and so a spanning tree must be chosen for each maximally connected component. Similar notations to Euler diagrams enhanced with graphs are common in many applications and our method is generalizable to drawing Hypergraphs represented in the subset standard, or to drawing Higraphs where edges are restricted to connecting with only atomic nodes. The system described here links graph drawing and Euler diagram drawing into a system for drawing graph-enhanced Euler diagrams. In a graph-enhanced Euler diagram, we have a graph, an underlying Euler diagram, and a mapping from the graph nodes to the zones of the Euler diagram. In any drawing, the nodes are required to be included in the corresponding zone. We are, in effect, embedding graphs in Euler diagrams. Our approach is to draw the Euler diagram first, and later add the graph in a way that minimizes the number of edge crossings and total edge length in the graph. There are various application areas which can be visualized by such structures and so benefit from the work described here such as databases [3] and file system organization [2] . However, we show our system being used with a form of constraint diagram, the spider diagram [9] . This application area is in particular need of automatic layout for the diagrams because automatic reasoning algorithms produce abstract diagrams that have no physical layout. An Euler diagram is a collection of contours (drawn as simple closed curves), arranged with specific overlaps. The parts of the plane distinguished by being contained within some contours and excluded from other contours are called zones. The essential structure of an Euler diagram is encapsulated by an abstract Euler diagram. An abstract Euler diagram is made up of information about contours and zones. Contours at the abstract level are not drawn, but have distinguishing contour labels. Zones are not parts of the plane, but a partition of the contour set into containing contours and excluding contours. To clarify these concepts, Figure 1 shows, first, an abstract Euler diagram, and, second, a drawn representation of the same Euler diagram. The shaded zone in the drawn diagram corresponds to the abstract zone {a}.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-25931-2_9 fatcat:35rucpfugnhl7fdkicjekn6b4q

Correcting for SPM effects in airborne EM

Terence Kratzer, James Macnae, Paul Mutton
2013 ASEG Extended Abstracts  
reductions in AEM noise levels, SPM effects (explained in the next section) has become an issue in lowamplitude, late-delay time data, and many anomalies have been drilled based on mistaken interpretation (Mutton  ...  significantly in conductive target identification. 2 In order to quantify the fitting efficacy on real data, we used a line of VTEM data over an area that we also had Magnetic Viscosity Meter (MVM) data (Mutton  ...  In order to quantify the fitting efficacy on real data, we used a line of VTEM data over an area that we also had Magnetic Viscosity Meter (MVM) data (Mutton, 2012) .  ... 
doi:10.1071/aseg2013ab050 fatcat:2zfulafinzbmxckjllqmrpsc7q

Follow-up drill hole surveying to determine unidentified EM targets

Paul Mutton
2015 ASEG Extended Abstracts  
doi:10.1071/aseg2015ab182 fatcat:pb2e37tlmzdwlcbqd4yvsqkfva

Demonstration of a Preprocessor for the Spring Embedder [chapter]

Paul Mutton, Peter Rodgers
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Spring embedding is a widely used method for producing automated layouts of graphs. We present a preprocessor that improves the performance of the classical spring embedder, which can be used in conjunction with other optimization and approximation techniques. It creates an initial graph layout with edge lengths that are approximately equal and with a minimum node separation from which the spring embedder typically needs far fewer iterations to produce a well laid out graph.
doi:10.1007/3-540-36151-0_40 fatcat:ywlt3jry3raybj2a4tcehowpge

Single and multiple respiratory virus infections and severity of respiratory disease: A systematic review

Edward Anthony Goka, Pamela J. Vallely, Kenneth J. Mutton, Paul E. Klapper
2014 Paediatric Respiratory Reviews  
There are suggestions that virus co-infections may influence the clinical outcome of respiratory virus illness. We performed a systematic review of the literature to summarise the evidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and WEB of Science databases, major organisation websites and reference lists of published studies were searched. The quality of studies was assessed using the STROBE tool (von Elm et al., 1) Individual study data was analyzed using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as a measure
more » ... f association between exposure (co-infection), patient outcome and results summarised using forest plots and tables Nineteen (19) studies from all over the world were identified and included in the review. Most of the studies 73.7% (14/19) recruited children ≤ 6 years old. Evidence on the role of co-infection in increasing disease severity was inconclusive. In five out of eight studies, co-infection significantly increased risk of admission to general ward (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3 - 4.4, p = 0.005; OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1 - 7.7, P = 0.04; OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0 - 5.1, p = <0.001; OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7-3.4, p = <0.0001 and OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1 - 5.1, p = 0.34), one found it did not (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.4 - 0.9, p = 0.02) and the other 2 had insignificant results. Similarly on risk of admission to ICU, some studies found that co-infection significantly increased risk of admission to ICU (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4 - 5.9, p = 0.004 and OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7 - 5.6, p = <0.0001), whereas others did not (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.75, p = 0.02 and OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2 - 0.6, p = <0.0001). There was no evidence for or against respiratory virus co-infections and risk of bronchiolitis or pneumonia. The influence of co-infections on severe viral respiratory disease is still unclear. The observed conflict in outcomes could be because they were conducted in different seasons and covered different years and periods. It could also be due to bias towards the null, especially in studies where only crude analysis was conducted. Future studies should employ stratified analysis.
doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2013.11.001 pmid:24361079 pmcid:PMC7106320 fatcat:crqbw5mlp5enrbjokidlspein4

Influenza A viruses dual and multiple infections with other respiratory viruses and risk of hospitalisation and mortality

Edward Goka, Pamela Vallely, Kenneth Mutton, Paul Klapper
2012 Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses  
doi:10.1111/irv.12020 pmid:23078095 pmcid:PMC4634299 fatcat:bscxkhw3vjfhbggtxnhqwbq6ne

Neuroimaging in encephalitis: analysis of imaging findings and interobserver agreement

J. Granerod, N.W.S. Davies, W. Mukonoweshuro, A. Mehta, K. Das, M. Lim, T. Solomon, S. Biswas, L. Rosella, D.W.G. Brown, N.S. Crowcroft, Helen E. Ambrose (+26 others)
2016 Clinical Radiology  
AIM: To assess the role of imaging in the early management of encephalitis and the agreement on findings in a well-defined cohort of suspected encephalitis cases enrolled in the Prospective Aetiological Study of Encephalitis conducted by the Health Protection Agency (now incorporated into Public Health England). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five CT examinations from 68 patients and 101 MRI examinations from 80 patients with suspected encephalitis were independently rated by three
more » ... sts blinded to patient and clinical details. The level of agreement on the interpretation of images was measured using the kappa statistic. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of CT and MRI for herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) were estimated. RESULTS: The kappa value for interobserver agreement on rating the scans as normal or abnormal was good (0.65) for CT and moderate (0.59) for MRI. Agreement for HSV encephalitis was very good for CT (0.87) and MRI (0.82), but only fair for ADEM (0.32 CT; 0.31 MRI). Similarly, the overall sensitivity of imaging for HSV encephalitis was w80% for both CT and BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Clinical Radiology 71 (2016) 1050e1058 MRI, whereas for ADEM it was 0% for CT and 20% for MRI. MRI specificity for HSV encephalitis between 3e10 days after symptom onset was 100%. CONCLUSION: There is a subjective component to scan interpretation that can have important implications for the clinical management of encephalitis cases. Neuroradiologists were good at diagnosing HSV encephalitis; however, agreement was worse for ADEM and other alternative aetiologies. Findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to diagnosing the cause of encephalitis that takes into account individual clinical, microbiological, and radiological features of each patient.
doi:10.1016/j.crad.2016.03.015 pmid:27185323 pmcid:PMC5021199 fatcat:mzq2wa7lbrd2nom47ku2analnu

Spring-Embedded Graphs for Semantic Visualization [chapter]

Jennifer Golbeck, Paul Mutton
Visualizing the Semantic Web  
Various optimizations exist to make this process quicker, such as preprocessing the initial random layout with linear time complexity (Mutton and Rodgers, 2002) , speeding up the calculation of forces  ... 
doi:10.1007/1-84628-290-x_10 fatcat:6ztj43v6gnaw5jndb6suxf5vnu

Page 446 of American Quarterly Review Vol. 21, Issue 42 [page]

1837 American Quarterly Review  
Then came boiled mutton and boiled potatoes, and then roast mutton and roast potatoes, and then came a macaroni paté.  ...  I| had suspected from the beginning that Paul was in the mutton line, and involuntarily murmured, ‘this day a sheep has died;’ and presently on came another cut of the murdered innocent, in cutlets accompanied  ... 

Page 32 of Godey's Magazine Vol. 43, Issue 1 [page]

1851 Godey's Magazine  
Nixon. «“ Peter took the mutton’’—  ...  ‘Go on with your story, Paul.” *«<«Gentlemen,’ resumed Mr. Pragg, ‘I have seen such a strange sight!’ and again he stopped and gasped for breath. Here Mr.  ... 

Page 604 of National Union Catalog Vol. 2, Issue [page]

1942 National Union Catalog  
—Sheep, mutton, and lamb. Pork industry and trade—U. 8. 2, Sheep—U. 8. 3. Tariff_u.S. 1 Thue 1.  ...  The tariffs on pork and mutton, by C. K. Alexander ... Madison, Wis., Tariff research committee, 1934. xviii p., 11, 120 p. lus. (maps) diagrs. 23°. (Agricaltural tariffs) ConTente.  ... 

Page 511 of Journal of the American Ceramic Society Vol. 7, Issue 12 [page]

1924 Journal of the American Ceramic Society  
Joseph Ryan,* Mutton Hollow Fire Brick Co., Woodbridge, N. J.—R. John E. Sachs,* 1405 E. Columbia, Evansville, Ind. M. Paul Sailly,* 64 Rue Franklin Ivry-Port, Seine, France —W. W.  ...  Ryan,* Mutton Hollow Fire Brick Co., Woodbridge, N. J.—R. J. J. Ryan,* Fraser Brick Co., 810 Sumpter Bldg., Dallas, Texas.—H. C. P. L. C. Ryan,* Mutton Hollow Fire Brick Co., Woodbridge, N. J.—R. P.  ... 

Page 545 of Forum and Century Vol. 47, Issue [page]

1912 Forum and Century  
THE GOLDEN FLEECE PauL S. RICHARDS [4 Wyoming Sheep-Man| depend upon the sheep-raisers of the West to a much greater degree than most of them suppose.  ...  Their flocks, fed on the grass of great unoccupied ranges, fur- nish most of the wool and mutton produced in the United States.  ... 

Page 868 of The Yale Review Vol. 5, Issue 4 [page]

1916 The Yale Review  
Paul, only to deprive him of it in the next line in favor of Menander. As this critic had written ve  ...  mutton he had ordered for that first meal at Ryde, but got only beans and bacon (i, p. 229).  ... 

Page 868 of The Yale Review Vol. 5, Issue 4 [page]

1916 The Yale Review  
Paul, only to deprive him of it in the next line in favor of Menander. As this critic had written  ...  mutton he had ordered for that first meal at Ryde, but got only beans and bacon (i, p. 229).  ... 
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