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Advances in Development of New Treatment for Leishmaniasis

Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio Guedes, Antônio Luis de Oliveira Almeida Petersen, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras
2015 BioMed Research International  
Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious disease caused by several different species of protozoan parasites of the genusLeishmania. Current strategies to control this disease are mainly based on chemotherapy. Despite being available for the last 70 years, leishmanial chemotherapy has lack of efficiency, since its route of administration is difficult and it can cause serious side effects, which results in the emergence of resistant cases. The medical-scientific community is facing difficulties to
more » ... overcome these problems with new suitable and efficient drugs, as well as the identification of new drug targets. The availability of the complete genome sequence ofLeishmaniahas given the scientific community the possibility of large-scale analysis, which may lead to better understanding of parasite biology and consequent identification of novel drug targets. In this review we focus on how high-throughput analysis is helping us and other groups to identify novel targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. We further discuss recent data produced by our group regarding the use of the high-throughput techniques and how this helped us to identify and assess the potential of new identified targets.
doi:10.1155/2015/815023 pmid:26078965 pmcid:PMC4442256 fatcat:zryoinstqbdxtn2yf3ysfn7sgm

Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Leishmania in spleen samples from naturally infected dogs

Manuela da Silva Solcà, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio Guedes, Eliane Gomes Nascimento, Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira, Washington Luis Conrado dos Santos, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras
2012 Veterinary parasitology  
Because infected dogs are widely considered to be the main domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) parasites in Brazil, the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) must be made both accurately and promptly. The present study attempted to standardize a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) protocol for the detection of L. infantum DNA in canine spleen samples. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique was used to confirm the presence of Leishmania DNA in the
more » ... anine spleen fragments. A comparison was made between the efficacies of these molecular diagnostic techniques and conventional parasitological and serological methods. cPCR protocols for spleen samples were standardized using primers that amplify a 145 bp fragment, located at the parasite kinetoplast minicircle. The genus specificity of the cPCR protocol was assessed by its inability to amplify the DNA of other common canine pathogens, such as Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. cPCR protocol sensitivity was tested by assessing the reaction detection limit, determined to be 10 fg of L. infantum reference strain DNA, which corresponds to a range of 0.03-0.1 parasites per fragment. Standardized cPCR protocol was used to detect the presence of Leishmania in 45 dog spleen samples. Our results showed that 40% of the spleen fragment cultures were positive for Leishmania parasites, 58% of the dog serum samples tested positive using ELISA, and parasite DNA was detected in 44% using qPCR, while 47% of the spleen samples using cPCR. Diagnostic methods performance was assessed and revealed a better degree of ascertainment for cPCR when compared to other diagnostic methods. The sensitivity of ELISA was 83.3%, qPCR was 83.3%, and cPCR was 88.9%; PPV for ELISA was 57.7%, qPCR was 75% and cPCR was 76.2%; the Kappa coefficients were found to be 0.40 (fair) for ELISA, 0.64 (substantial) for qPCR and 0.68 (substantial) for cPCR. In both oligosymptomatic and polysymptomatic dogs, cPCR revealed the better performance analysis when compared to other diagnostic methods. The findings presented herein establish cPCR as the most indicated test to detect Leishmania when compared to the other two diagnostic methods
doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.08.026 pmid:21917379 fatcat:5sqhigjozfdsxhskv4tijpkmrq

Circulating Biomarkers of Immune Activation, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Characterize Severe Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

Manuela S. Solcà, Bruno B. Andrade, Melissa Moura Costa Abbehusen, Clarissa R. Teixeira, Ricardo Khouri, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Patrícia Torres Bozza, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Valeria Matos Borges, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Claudia Ida Brodskyn
2016 Scientific Reports  
Clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have not been clearly associated with immunological status or disease progression. We simultaneously assessed biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, oxidative stress, and anti-sand fly saliva IgG concentrations in dog sera with different clinical manifestations to characterize a biosignature associated with CVL severity. In a cross-sectional exploratory study, a random population of 70 dogs from an endemic area in Brazil was
more » ... classified according to CVL clinical severity and parasitological evaluation. A panel of biomarkers and anti-sand fly saliva IgG were measured in canine sera. Assessment of protein expression of profile biomarkers identified a distinct biosignature that could cluster separately animal groups with different clinical scores. Increasing severity scores were associated with a gradual decrease of LTB4 and PGE2, and a gradual increase in CXCL1 and CCL2. Discriminant analyses revealed that combined assessment of LTB4, PGE2 and CXCL1 was able to distinguish dogs with different clinical scores. Dogs with the highest clinical score values also exhibited high parasite loads and higher concentrations of anti-saliva antibodies. Our findings suggest CVL clinical severity is tightly associated with a distinct inflammatory profile hallmarked by a differential expression of circulating eicosanoids and chemokines. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. This parasite is transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of the infected sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis 1,2 . Dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the parasite and its presence in the endemic area is known as a risk factor for the occurrence of human VL 3,4 . Clinical signs of canine VL (CVL) are non-specific, there is a widespread range of clinical manifestations varying from visceral to cutaneous presentation of the disease 5,6 , on the other hand some animals do not display any clinical signs during the course of infection 7 . The resistance and susceptibility to CVL is directly correlated with the development of Th1 (IFN-γ , IL-2 and TNF-α ), or Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and TGF-β ) immune
doi:10.1038/srep32619 pmid:27595802 pmcid:PMC5011641 fatcat:w6dgdz3xangdtnrum5fmx6cqsi

DETERMINAÇÃO DE ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO E CAROTENÓIDES TOTAIS EM AMOSTRAS DE POLPA DE PITAIA BRANCA (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS) E VERMELHA (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS) SUBMETIDAS A PROCEDIMENTOS TÉRMICOS

Nailma de Jesus Martins, Sandra Mara Silva, João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira, Patrícia Xavier Baliza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa Souza, Leila Moreira Bittencourt Rigueira
2020 Brazilian Journal of Development  
Determinação de ácido ascórbico e carotenóides totais em amostras de polpa de pitaia branca (hylocereus undatus) e vermelha (hylocereus polyrhizus) submetidas a procedimentos térmicos Determination of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids in white (hylocereus undatus) and red (hylocereus polyrhizus) pulp samples submitted to thermal procedures
doi:10.34117/bjdv6n8-654 fatcat:qmq3ktrdsvg6vaqicw26f2xm54

Evaluating the Accuracy of Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Latent Class Analysis

Manuela da Silva Solcà, Leila Andrade Bastos, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio Guedes, Marcelo Bordoni, Lairton Souza Borja, Daniela Farias Larangeira, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela Tuy, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Eliane Gomes Nascimento, Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira, Washington Luis Conrado dos-Santos, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga (+2 others)
2014 PLoS ONE  
Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR) in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL
more » ... ing serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4-100) in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68-90.3) in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5-90.1) in skin; 75% (CI 63.1-86.9) in blood; 50% (CI 30-70) in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2-50.8) in left-eye; and 29.2% ) in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n = 800), collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7-79.6) for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5-96.5) that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103635 pmid:25076494 pmcid:PMC4116254 fatcat:kwfburuazbgo3lutgllfwx63yi

Effects of larval rearing substrates on some life-table parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies

Kelsilandia Aguiar Martins, Maria Helena de Athayde Meirelles, Tiago Feitosa Mota, Ibrahim Abbasi, Artur Trancoso Lopo de Queiroz, Claudia Ida Brodskyn, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Alon Warburg, Guy Caljon
2021 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
Writing -review & editing: Claudia Ida Brodskyn, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Alon Warburg.  ...  (XLSX) Project administration: Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga. Supervision: Artur Trancoso Lopo de Queiroz, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Alon Warburg.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0009034 pmid:33476330 fatcat:jspgxj4v7vh7jf2jlqpil3alqy

A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis

Deborah Bittencourt Fraga, Edimilson da Silva, Luciano Pacheco, Lairton Borja, Isaac de Oliveira, Wendel Coura-Vital, Glória Monteiro, Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira, Selma Maria Jerônimo, Alexandre Reis, Patrícia Sampaio Veras
2014 Parasites & Vectors  
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate
more » ... the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings: DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81-91) and 88% (CI 82-93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91-100) and 97% (CI 87-100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% . Conclusions: The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-136 pmid:24684857 pmcid:PMC3972511 fatcat:qixrgfhd45au5d4622mhmybsiu

Comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: IgG, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis

Consuelo Barreto Fernandes, Jairo Torres Magalhães Junior, Clauceane de Jesus, Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva Souza, Daniela Farias Larangeira, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patricia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
2014 Vaccine  
Background: The incidence of zoonotic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would decrease if dogs were effectively vaccinated; however, additional data on the efficacy of canine vaccines are required for their approved preventative use.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.046 pmid:24406392 fatcat:m5j6mtd5cfgz3h3kbjtdek4yyi

Parasitic load and histological aspects in different regions of the spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

Naiara Carvalho Teixeira Bagues, Cristiane Garboggini Melo de Pinheiro, Leila Andrade Bastos, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Lain Carlos Pontes-de-Carvalho, Washington L.C. dos-Santos, Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira
2018 Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases  
doi:10.1016/j.cimid.2017.11.003 pmid:29406277 fatcat:xoovpjd2fzdipmgbuw6miuf344

Immune response dynamics and Lutzomyia longipalpis exposure characterize a biosignature of visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility in a canine cohort

Manuela da Silva Solcà, Maiara Reis Arruda, Bruna Martins Macedo Leite, Tiago Feitosa Mota, Miriam Flores Rebouças, Matheus Silva de Jesus, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Valéria Matos Borges, Jesus Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga (+1 others)
2021 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
Reports have shown correlations between the immune response to vector saliva and Leishmaniasis outcome. We followed dogs in an endemic area for two years characterizing resistance or susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) according to Leishmania infantum diagnosis and clinical development criteria. Then, we aimed to identify a biosignature based on parasite load, serum biological mediators' interactions, and vector exposure intensity associated with CVL resistance and
more » ... ty. A prospective two-year study was conducted in an area endemic for CVL. Dogs were evaluated at 6-month intervals to determine infection, clinical manifestations, immune profile, and sandfly exposure. CVL resistance or susceptibility was determined upon the conclusion of the study. After two years, 78% of the dogs were infected with L. infantum (53% susceptible and 47% resistant to CVL). Susceptible dogs presented higher splenic parasite load as well as persistence of the parasite during the follow-up, compared to resistant ones. Susceptible dogs also displayed a higher number of correlations among the investigated biological mediators, before and after infection diagnosis. At baseline, anti-saliva antibodies, indicative of exposure to the vector, were detected in 62% of the dogs, reaching 100% in one year. Higher sandfly exposure increased the risk of susceptibility to CVL by 1.6 times (CI: 1.11-2.41). We identified a discriminatory biosignature between the resistant and susceptible dogs assessing splenic parasite load, interaction of biological mediators, PGE2 serum levels and intensity of exposure to sandfly. All these parameters were elevated in susceptible dogs compared to resistant animals. The biosignature identified in our study reinforces the idea that CVL is a complex multifactorial disease that is affected by a set of factors which are correlated and, for a better understanding of CVL, should not be evaluated in an isolated way.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0009137 pmid:33617528 pmcid:PMC7943000 fatcat:xcwezw4aorband2ck3y2ohekmu

Plant-feeding phlebotomine sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, prefer Cannabis sativa

Ibrahim Abbasi, Artur Trancoso Lopo de Queiroz, Oscar David Kirstein, Abdelmajeed Nasereddin, Ben Zion Horwitz, Asrat Hailu, Ikram Salah, Tiago Feitosa Mota, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patricia Sampaio Tavares Veras, David Poche, Richard Poche (+4 others)
2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmit leishmaniasis as well as arboviral diseases and bartonellosis. Sand fly females become infected with Leishmania parasites and transmit them while imbibing vertebrates' blood, required as a source of protein for maturation of eggs. In addition, both females and males consume plant-derived sugar meals as a source of energy. Plant meals may comprise sugary solutions such as nectar or honeydew (secreted by plant-sucking
more » ... insects), as well as phloem sap that sand flies obtain by piercing leaves and stems with their needle-like mouthparts. Hence, the structure of plant communities can influence the distribution and epidemiology of leishmaniasis. We designed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)–based assay for determining the source of sand fly plant meals, based upon the chloroplast DNA gene ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain (rbcL). Here, we report on the predilection of several sand fly species, vectors of leishmaniasis in different parts of the world, for feeding on Cannabis sativa. We infer this preference based on the substantial percentage of sand flies that had fed on C. sativa plants despite the apparent "absence" of these plants from most of the field sites. We discuss the conceivable implications of the affinity of sand flies for C. sativa on their vectorial capacity for Leishmania and the putative exploitation of their attraction to C. sativa for the control of sand fly-borne diseases.
doi:10.1073/pnas.1810435115 fatcat:3l4b5knotvdybbttrxi6paeydi

Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors

Lairton Souza Borja, Orlando Marcos Farias de Sousa, Manuela da Silva Solcà, Leila Andrade Bastos, Marcelo Bordoni, Jairo Torres Magalhães, Daniela Farias Larangeira, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras
2016 Veterinary parasitology  
The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity
more » ... parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as potentially reliable markers of canine capacity to infect sand fly vector.
doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.10.004 pmid:27809965 fatcat:kjm3uijpcfd4jbv2b3ja5veqbm

The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs

Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Luciano Vasconcellos Pacheco, Lairton Souza Borja, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela Tuy, Leila Andrade Bastos, Manuela da Silva Solcà, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Albert Picado
2016 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in
more » ... endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases |
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004333 pmid:26731098 pmcid:PMC4701173 fatcat:m6netvjn7vb3tlwdyufljmqeg4

The mass use of deltamethrin collars to control and prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis: A field effectiveness study in a highly endemic area

Bruna Martins Macedo Leite, Manuela da Silva Solcà, Liliane Celestino Sales Santos, Lívia Brito Coelho, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Lucas Edel Donato, Sandra Maria de Souza Passos, Adriana Oliveira de Almeida, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
2018 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis of great importance. Limitations in current VL control measures compromise efficacy, indicating the need to implement new strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated collars in dogs as a public health measure to control and prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methodology An interventional study was implemented in two endemic areas in the district of Monte Gordo (Bahia-Brazil):
more » ... n intervention area, in which VL seronegative dogs were collared, and a control area in which only conventional CVL control measures were applied. At baseline, seropositive dogs were removed and seronegative dogs were included. Dogs were then reevaluated every 7-8 months for almost two years. At each time point, dogs in the intervention area that remained seronegative received new collars and newly identified seronegative dogs were included and collared. The local zoonosis control authorities were notified of any dogs that tested seropositive in both areas, which were subsequently marked for euthanasia as mandated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Principal findings In the first serological survey, seroprevalence was similar in both areas. At the second evaluation, significant reductions in seroprevalence were seen in both areas, while PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases | https://doi.the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which provided the deltamethrin collars and DPP LVC and EIE LVC tests used in this study. Additionally, we would like to thank FAPESB for BMML's scholarship. The funders had no role in seroprevalence in the intervention area reduced to 6.0% during the final evaluation versus an increase of 11.0% in the control area. This significant increase and the estimated relative risk (RR = 0.55) indicated protection against CVL in the intervention area. Although CVL incidence did not differ significantly between the areas, an increased tendency was observed in the control area, which could be due to low seroconversion rates throughout the study or a high loss to follow-up. Conclusions/Significance Although our evaluation of the effectiveness of deltamethrin-impregnated collars as a community-wide public health control measure was inconclusive, this measure likely provides protection over time. In endemic areas of Brazil, this strategy represents an operational challenge for local zoonosis control authorities, indicating the need for adjustments, including improved collar design. Author summary Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem. Cases of canine VL (CVL) tend to precede cases of human VL and current control measures are ineffective in significantly reducing the number of disease cases. Therefore, in light of the need for new strategies, we evaluated the mass use of dog collars impregnated with deltamethrin as a public health measure to control and prevent CVL in a highly endemic region in Brazil. Although our results were inconclusive, they do point to the possible effectiveness of this measure if it were comprehensively implemented over an extended period of time. We identified the need to adjust the currently employed implementation strategy and call attention to the operational challenges faced by local zoonosis prevention authorities. Evaluating deltamethrin collars as a public health measure PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases | https://doi.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006496 pmid:29758031 pmcid:PMC5993122 fatcat:fpi5z2x4evbghbypyu4bkoz3na

Natural infection by Leishmania infantum in the Lutzomyia longipalpis population of an endemic coastal area to visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is not associated with bioclimatic factors

Tiago Feitosa Mota, Orlando Marcos Farias de Sousa, Yuri de Jesus Silva, Lairton Souza Borja, Bruna Martins Macedo Leite, Manuela da Silva Solcà, Djalma Alves de Melo, Claudia Ida Brodskyn, Edelberto Santos Dias, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Waleed Saleh Al-Salem
2019 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
Marcondes CB, Bittencourt IA, Stoco PH, Eger I, Grisard EC, Steindel M.  ...  Author Contributions Conceptualization: Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007626 pmid:31449534 pmcid:PMC6730935 fatcat:ylw4nizkvjgdtkrv5by2co67xa
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