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Adaptive packet sampling for flow volume measurement

Beak-Young Choi, Jaesung Park, Zhi-Li Zhang
2002 Computer communication review  
In this paper we propose and analyze an adaptive, stratified random packet sampling technique for flow-level traffic measurement.  ...  With high-speed Internet backbone links, efficient and effective packet sampling techniques for traffic measurement and monitoring are not only desirable, but also increasingly becoming a necessity.  ...  There are several challenging issues in packet sampling for flow-level measurement. In this section we provide an overview of these challenges and our proposed approach. A.  ... 
doi:10.1145/571697.571698 fatcat:y3rbfhxy35f4xfnaktdpdt4rha

New directions in traffic measurement and accounting

Cristian Estan, George Varghese
2003 ACM Transactions on Computer Systems  
We propose two novel and scalable algorithms for identifying the large flows: sample and hold and multistage filters, which take a constant number of memory references per packet and use a small amount  ...  The current state-of-the-art methods (Cisco's sampled NetFlow), which count periodically sampled packets are slow, inaccurate and resourceintensive.  ...  Baboescu and the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/859716.859719 fatcat:ih7q6twmhrf5rmi2eev6azt6ye

Loss and Delay Accountability for the Internet

Katerina Argyraki, Petros Maniatis, Olga Irzak, Subramanian Ashish, Scott Shenker
2007 2007 IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols  
The Internet provides no information on the fate of transmitted packets, and end systems cannot determine who  ...  We would like to thank Steven Dropsho, Aravind Menon, Simon Schubert, Ming-Yee Iu, Matt Grossglauser, and the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments that helped improve this paper.  ...  Flow Sampling Another limitation is that each checkpoint must observe every single packet in order to produce accurate statistics; in practice, ISPs prefer to use sampled NetFlow, which monitors only a  ... 
doi:10.1109/icnp.2007.4375850 dblp:conf/icnp/ArgyrakiMIAS07 fatcat:sh77sin47zfl3dtp3bghvhhqzq

Forwarding Accountability: A Challenging Necessity of the Future Data Plane [chapter]

Christos Pappas, Raphael M. Reischuk, Adrian Perrig
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we take flooding attacks as a use case and describe a proposal to hold senders accountable for the sending rates of their flows.  ...  Furthermore, we describe the corresponding challenges, potential solutions, and briefly present the literature in the area of forwarding accountability.  ...  We extend our recent work, FAIR [12] , by outlining an ACcountability-based Ddos Protection framework -ACDP -to hold the sending hosts accountable for the sending rates of their originated flows.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39028-4_1 fatcat:h7wwptfxt5eoxbugsgtednbyza

Accounting for Cloud Computing in the National Accounts

Andrew Baer, Kwangwon Lee, James Tebrake
2020 IMF Working Papers  
This paper will outline some of the methodological and compilation challenges facing statisticians and analysts, provide some tools that can be used to overcome these challenges and highlight some of the  ...  implications these changes are having on the way users of national accounts data look at investment and trade in commercial services.  ...  THE CHALLENGES CLOUD COMPUTING POSES FOR NATIONAL ACCOUNTANTS Cloud computing is posing several challenges for national accountants.  ... 
doi:10.5089/9781513550459.001 fatcat:hfmh3eg7hffsnegofau7ddasz4

Procuring the Anomaly Packets and Accountability Detection in the Network

V Laxman
2013 IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering  
However, they often have features limited to packet capturing and decoding, or they are simulation tools that often require a complex developing phase to define the behavior of each test.  ...  SIP messages flowing in the network are captured. 2. In charge of grouping SIP messages into transactions and dialog. 3. Operates by comparing the message flow with a set of predefined rules.  ...  For each model, an anomaly score is computed, and the sum is assigned to the packet. The reason for modeling ports 0-255 is for ease of implementation.  ... 
doi:10.9790/0661-131134137 fatcat:mw4sfhchwjgf7hpjsxov3z5e2m

A taxonomy and design considerations for Internet accounting

Michel Kouadio, Udo Pooch
2002 Computer communication review  
A central need of these endeavors lies in the design of efficient accounting architecture for collecting, storing, processing and communicating relevant technical information to parties involved in transactions  ...  Many proposals have been put forth, including various strategies from Pricing Theory and market-based insights for security in the Internet.  ...  Sampling is typically used for volume of traffic, the packets sent over the network.  ... 
doi:10.1145/774749.774757 fatcat:3kmc52lzcjgo7guriu7l7x3qgm

Reducing Packet-Loss by Taking Long-Range Dependences into Account [chapter]

J. Ignacio Alvarez-Hamelin, Pierre Fraigniaud
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We show how to implement the computation of the probabilistic congestion, and we illustrate several applications for improving unicast and multicast protocols.  ...  We show that the "fractal" behavior of Internet traffic can be efficiently and practically employed to significantly reduce packet-loss.  ...  For instance, if there are 60 aggregated voice flows, then the percentage of packet lasses in these flows is 9.37% for path P1 , whereas it is only 0.64% for path P2 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24693-0_90 fatcat:t6coadignrfm5lbvqfwxoul27y

Processing of Flow Accounting Data in Java: Framework Design and Performance Evaluation [chapter]

Jochen Kögel, Sebastian Scholz
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We developed a framework for processing of Flow Accounting data in Java. It provides processing blocks for aggregation, sorting, statistics, correlation, and other tasks.  ...  However, processing of Flow Accounting data is a challenging task, especially in large networks where the rate of Flow Records received at the collector can be very high.  ...  The router updates the flow information (e.g. byte and packet count) either for each packet (unsampled) or for a fraction of packets (sampled).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13971-0_17 fatcat:dyqvi3rqkjgltmo44bygscnt7a

Accounting for Uncertainty

Joseph D.V. Vu
2003 CFA Digest  
These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors."  ...  Additionally, foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations may have an impact on our future costs or on future cash flows from our international operations.  ...  2010 issuance, which were accounted for as cash flow hedges.  ... 
doi:10.2469/dig.v33.n2.1270 fatcat:msg2da7bnragjhvxunxgmnm24a

Domestic Accounting Standards, International Accounting Standards, and the Predictability of Earnings

Frank T. Magiera
2002 CFA Digest  
These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors."  ...  Additionally, foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations may have an impact on our future costs or on future cash flows from our international operations.  ...  2010 issuance, which were accounted for as cash flow hedges.  ... 
doi:10.2469/dig.v32.n3.1124 fatcat:f3hb3ui76nemppjv3cpds54mdi

Achieving Accountability in Smart Grid

Jing Liu, Yang Xiao, Jingcheng Gao
2014 IEEE Systems Journal  
Analysis and simulation results indicate that the design works well, and it may cause all power loads to become accountable.  ...  We design two separate accountable communication protocols using the proposed architecture with certain reasonable assumptions under both home area network and neighborhood area network.  ...  Second, since appliances have limited capabilities for communication and storage, designing a feasible observable mechanism for witnesses is also required (Challenge 2).  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsyst.2013.2260697 fatcat:am4yi4m3d5gdrbsakavmnwc35i

Accounting for roaming users on mobile data access

Guan-Hua Tu, Chunyi Peng, Chi-Yu Li, Xingyu Ma, Hongyi Wang, Tao Wang, Songwu Lu
2013 Proceeding of the 11th annual international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services - MobiSys '13  
In this paper, we study how mobility affects mobile data accounting, which records the usage volume for each roaming user.  ...  However, under certain biased, less common yet possible scenarios, accounting gap between the operator's log and the user's observation indeed exists.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We greatly appreciate the insightful and timely comments from our shepherd, Dr. Matt Welsh, and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2462456.2464439 dblp:conf/mobisys/TuPLMWWL13 fatcat:rgfq4zbdsran3pyp2pebllg7bm

Design considerations for usage accounting and feedback in internetworks

Deborah Estrin, Lixia Zhang
1990 Computer communication review  
Abstrac t This paper investigates the design of resource usag e feedback mechanisms for packet switched internetworks .  ...  After a discussion of the motivations for feedback mechanisms, feedback channels and policies are described .  ...  An alternative to exact packet counts is statistica l accounting, i .e ., taking samples of high speed traffi c sources .  ... 
doi:10.1145/381906.381935 fatcat:ca5tgavoubgblhn6psmwdcbpoq

3AS: Authentication, Authorization, and Accountability for SDN-based Smart Grids

Arthur A. Z. Soares, Yona Lopes, Diego Passos, Natalia C. Fernandes, Debora C. Muchaluat-Saade
2021 IEEE Access  
ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank Vectors Market from for the icons provided. research grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the  ...  Rio de Janeiro State's Research Support Foundation (FAPERJ), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), and other funding agencies.  ...  The authentication process starts at second 0, followed by two OpenFlow packets installing supplicant flow rules for the authenticator in each SDN switch.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3090346 fatcat:673tdcliunb7fdexhxywf6nz5q
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