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PMU-based Line Differential Protection under GPS Spoofing Attack

Jiahao Xie, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos, George Cokkinides
2021 Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences   unpublished
In this paper, we investigate the effect of GPS spoofing attack on transmission line differential protection schemes based on PMUs, including the percentage differential method and alpha-plane protection  ...  Numerical results show that the proposed method detects the GPS spoofing successfully and the recovered measurement data eliminate the misoperation of line differential protection.  ...  spoofing attack on PMU based transmission line differential protective relays.  ... 
doi:10.24251/hicss.2021.407 fatcat:tv2ocmyeyzfo5ft6bgvth5bzti

Model based intrusion detection system for synchrophasor applications in smart grid

Rafiullah Khan, Abdullah Albalushi, Kieran McLaughlin, David Laverty, Sakir Sezer
2017 2017 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting  
The defined model-based rules enable it to detect known as well as unknown attacks (including unintentional misuse).  ...  The size, format and structure of IEEE C37.118 payloads vary significantly from one PMU/PDC to the other which make traditional signature based IDS tools (i.e., SNORT, Suricata, etc) inefficient for synchrophasor-based  ...  The SBRs are also useful in detecting GPS spoofing/blocking attacks (e.g., clock failure) on PMUs/PDCs, command injection attacks and different form of MITM attacks. 2) Range-Based Rules (RBRs): The RBRs  ... 
doi:10.1109/pesgm.2017.8274687 fatcat:5zymw3crzjdjfhr2ai2n6kta3e

Time Synchronization Attack in Smart Grid-Part I: Impact and Analysis [article]

Zhenghao Zhang, Shuping Gong, Aleksandar D. Dimitrovski, Husheng Li
2012 arXiv   pre-print
attack the measurement system by spoofing the GPS.  ...  The effectiveness of TSA is demonstrated for three applications of phasor measurement unit (PMU) in smart grid, namely transmission line fault detection, voltage stability monitoring and event locationing  ...  Fig. 6 : 6 Model for long transmission line model with fault Fig. 5 : 5 Spoof the GPS receiver by a three-stage attack.  ... 
arXiv:1204.0459v1 fatcat:duu4wpybnrhedo3qav52ogz5a4

Fast Sequence Component Analysis for Attack Detection in Synchrophasor Networks [article]

Jordan Landford, Rich Meier, Richard Barella, Xinghui Zhao, Eduardo Cotilla-Sanchez, Robert B. Bass, Scott Wallace
2015 arXiv   pre-print
Several spoofing schemes have been developed to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate detection capabilities.  ...  A correlation coefficient characterization and machine learning methodology are proposed to detect and identify injection of spoofed data signals.  ...  We thank both Portland General Electric and the Bonneville Power Administration for providing PMU data.  ... 
arXiv:1509.05086v1 fatcat:c33tmiuhrjedjmpzid5u3zd6t4

Survey on synchrophasor data quality and cybersecurity challenges, and evaluation of their interdependencies

Aditya SUNDARARAJAN, Tanwir KHAN, Amir MOGHADASI, Arif I. SARWAT
2018 Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy  
It also summarizes different methods used to evaluate the dependency and surveys how quality checking methods can be used to detect potential cyber-attacks.  ...  data GPS spoofing Multi-alteration technique to trace adversary in event of GPS spoofing Visible GPS satellite prediction Anomaly between expected and measured GPS signals Using SSL/TLS or IPSec  ...  ) receivers that acquire a time-lag based on the atomic clock of GPS satellites [23, [74] [75] [76] [77] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s40565-018-0473-6 fatcat:sw5vt7jdvjc3jml7ylpx3kp2ja

Demonstrating Cyber-Physical Attacks and Defense for Synchrophasor Technology in Smart Grid

Rafiullah Khan, Kieran McLaughlin, John Hastings David Laverty, Hastings David, Sakir Sezer
2018 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST)  
Authors in [16] investigated a GPS spoofing attack against PMU devices by injecting a counterfeit ensemble of GPS signals into the PMU antenna.  ...  These rules can detect simple attacks (e.g., port scanning, GPS spoofing, command injection, etc) but fail to detect complex behavior violations. 2) Range-Based Rules (RBR): Range-based rules define an  ... 
doi:10.1109/pst.2018.8514197 dblp:conf/pst/KhanMHLS18 fatcat:7npo2zb5ebb3jggw5lrzprvjcu

Location spoofing attack detection with pre-installed sensors in mobile devices

Shing Ki Wong, Siu-Ming Yiu
2020 Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications  
In this paper, we clarify and differentiate between these two kinds of location spoofing attacks to avoid ambiguity in future research work.  ...  In recent years, the term 'location spoofing' can also refer to the act of false reporting on one's GPS location to other location-based applications.  ...  Under the line of sights of four or more GPS satellites, one can easily pinpoint his/her location on the Earth from the geolocation data provided by the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).  ... 
doi:10.22667/jowua.2020.12.31.016 dblp:journals/jowua/WongY20 fatcat:fxi4oj2c2bg7reeuq2dlbz624i

GPS software attacks

Tyler Nighswander, Brent Ledvina, Jonathan Diamond, Robert Brumley, David Brumley
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '12  
We develop a new hardware platform for GPS attacks, and develop novel attacks against GPS infrastructure.  ...  To date, researchers have essentially taken a signal processing approach to GPS security and shown that GPS is vulnerable to jamming and spoofing.  ...  To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to propose using an IDS style system to detect GPS spoofing attacks 6 . Our EGADS design has a rule-based and anomaly-based component.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2382196.2382245 dblp:conf/ccs/NighswanderLDBB12 fatcat:lcyjecibffadngl3s7io2e7wku

A Survey of Denial-of-Service Attacks and Solutions in the Smart Grid

A. Huseinovic, S. Mrdovic, K. Bicakci, S. Uludag
2020 IEEE Access  
PMU Power lines PMU Modem Modem PDC Utility 1 Phone lines PMU Modem Modem BT Server PDC Utility 2 PMU PMU Optic fiber Optic fiber PDC Utility 3 LAN Server Ethernet Microwave  ...  De-synchronization attacks [107] - [115] can be utilized as another form of DoS, as illustrated in Figure 24 . GPS synchronized devices may be subject to well-known GPS spoofing attacks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3026923 fatcat:cpdqhwe2era6hmewqvmmja7dny

Digital Forensic Analysis of Industrial Control Systems Using Sandboxing: A Case of WAMPAC Applications in the Power Systems

Asif Iqbal, Farhan Mahmood, Mathias Ekstedt
2019 Energies  
The power of connectivity and control makes it a much more challenging task to protect critical industrial control systems.  ...  It is extremely important for a forensic investigation to get credible evidence of any cyber-attack as required by the Daubert standard.  ...  While previously, the authors were only able to perform and analyze time synchronization and GPS spoofing attack in this work, we expanded our horizons by adding authentication attack.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en12132598 fatcat:xzvpm6kcunae5mcsipmni5lt24

On Sensor Security in the Era of IoT and CPS

Max Panoff, Raj Gautam Dutta, Yaodan Hu, Kaichen Yang, Yier Jin
2021 SN Computer Science  
To help unite these efforts, we propose a lexicon to easily differentiate between types and methods of attacks on sensors.  ...  We examine the most recent and influential attacks on sensors, especially when they are acting as edge nodes of systems, as well as defenses against said attacks.  ...  PMUs use GPS information to obtain accurate timing and shepard uses data spoofing attacks on individual PMUs to destabilize the smart grid as a whole [47] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s42979-020-00423-5 fatcat:n2cecnjrajbphhx6qnuiqsqhwi

A Comprehensive Survey on Phasor Measurement Unit Applications in Distribution Systems

Mojgan Hojabri, Ulrich Dersch, Antonios Papaemmanouil, Peter Bosshart
2019 Energies  
Thus, the utilization of PMUs has become quite important in the fast monitoring, protection, and even the control of new and complicated distribution systems.  ...  This study presents a comprehensive survey on wide-area monitoring systems (WAMSs), PMUs, data quality, and communication requirements for the main applications of PMUs in a modern and smart distribution  ...  GPS has some advantages for power grids, such as its global coverage, free availability, and a µs level of timing accuracy [26] . However, it is vulnerable to spoofing [27] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/en12234552 fatcat:mwjhrlejxrbxhfkbmg6v5vwg7u

Synchrophasor Measurement Technology in Power Systems: Panorama and State-of-the-Art

Farrokh Aminifar, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Amir Safdarian, Ali Davoudi, Mohammad Shahidehpour
2014 IEEE Access  
Relevant research articles appeared in the IEEE and IET publications from 1983 through 2014 are rigorously surveyed in this paper to represent a panorama of research progress lines.  ...  PMU placement, miscellaneous applications of PMU from local perspectives, and various WAMS functionalities from the system perspective.  ...  Besides, spoofing attacks on the GPS receiver of a PMU are a potential threat for the correct phase angle reporting of voltage or current measurements provided by the PMU [123] - [125] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2015.2389659 fatcat:7jzjudyg6neyvoathkvugmh5a4

Spoofing and Anti-spoofing Technologies of Global Navigation Satellite System: A Survey

Zhijun Wu, Yun Zhang, Yiming Yang, Cheng Liang, Rusen Liu
2020 IEEE Access  
It protects the avionics system from direct electronic attacks such as GPS jammers.  ...  of the PD detector-based symmetric differential distortion measurement method [70] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3022294 fatcat:crv2g4ebpzbddkphu3i6mifk44

A Novel Technique to Detect False Data Injection Attacks on Phasor Measurement Units

Saleh Almasabi, Turki Alsuwian, Ehtasham Javed, Muhammad Irfan, Mohammed Jalalah, Belqasem Aljafari, Farid A Harraz
2021 Sensors  
This paper investigates FDIAs for PMU-based state estimation, where the PMUs are comparable. Several states can be manipulated by compromising one PMU through the channels of that PMU.  ...  One of these threats is false data injection attacks (FDIAs). Most of the FDIA literature focuses on the vulnerability of DC estimators and AC estimators to such attacks.  ...  The ability to spoof the global positioning system (GPS) signal of PMUs was assessed by [17, 18] where several techniques were introduced.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21175791 pmid:34502682 pmcid:PMC8434066 fatcat:nzd2mvxf6rezhborg5443wc5ce
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