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Ordinal Regression using Noisy Pairwise Comparisons for Body Mass Index Range Estimation [article]

Luisa Polania, Dongning Wang, Glenn Fung
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Ordinal regression aims to classify instances into ordinal categories. In this paper, body mass index (BMI) category estimation from facial images is cast as an ordinal regression problem.  ...  In particular, noisy binary search algorithms based on pairwise comparisons are employed to exploit the ordinal relationship among BMI categories.  ...  Introduction Body mass index is a biometric that provides information about health condition and is frequently employed as a measure to diagnose obesity [19] .  ... 
arXiv:1811.03268v1 fatcat:qaqik3qkxjhq5piigwd7fhm3ti

Patient dose and image quality in low-dose abdominal CT: a comparison between iterative reconstruction and filtered back projection

Bharti Kataria, Örjan Smedby
2013 Acta Radiologica  
Four radiologists made pair-wise image quality assessment using five visual criteria. Visual Grading Regression (VGR) and weighted kappa (κ w ) was used to analyze the data.  ...  Inter-observer agreement ranged from 70 to 91% and κ w from −0.01 to 0.57.  ...  We extend our special thanks to Jonas Nilsson-Althén, our hospital physicist, for his help in planning this study.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0284185113476019 pmid:23474768 fatcat:2rl7err2wjbfhn3c4sgq6xn43u

The erratic mitochondrial clock: variations of mutation rate, not population size, affect mtDNA diversity across birds and mammals

Benoit Nabholz, Sylvain Glémin, Nicolas Galtier
2009 BMC Evolutionary Biology  
We propose to challenge these results thanks to the bird/mammal comparison.  ...  On average, mitochondrial DNA evolves slower in birds than in mammals of similar body size.  ...  We thank the three anonymous referees for their helpful comments. We thank the ISEM bioinformatic platform for providing the computing resources. This is manuscript number ISEM 2009-017.  ... 
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-54 pmid:19284537 pmcid:PMC2660308 fatcat:ca7inkg3tbgl7plnbuvalsmdtm

Phenome-wide heritability analysis of the UK Biobank

Tian Ge, Chia-Yen Chen, Benjamin M. Neale, Mert R. Sabuncu, Jordan W. Smoller, Benjamin W. Domingue
2017 PLoS Genetics  
mass index), sex (e.g., blood pressure related traits) and socioeconomic status (education).  ...  Here, using a computationally and memory efficient heritability estimation method, we report the heritability for a large number of traits derived from the large-scale, population-based UK Biobank, and  ...  For example, twin and pedigree studies have estimated the heritability of human height and body mass index (BMI) to be approximately 80% and 40-60% [see e.g., [19] [20] [21] , respectively, although recent  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006711 pmid:28388634 pmcid:PMC5400281 fatcat:xq4yasj2zjbx5lillnws2dnlo4

Multiple novel gene-by-environment interactions modify the effect of FTO variants on body mass index

Alexander I. Young, Fabian Wauthier, Peter Donnelly
2016 Nature Communications  
Genetic studies have shown that obesity risk is heritable and that, of the many common variants now associated with body mass index, those in an intron of the fat mass and obesityassociated (FTO) gene  ...  For the frequency of added salt, the categories are: 1, never/rarely; 2, sometimes; 3, usually; and 4, always.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by Wellcome Trust grants 095552/Z/11/Z to P.D. and 090532/Z/09/Z as core support for the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics.  ... 
doi:10.1038/ncomms12724 pmid:27596730 pmcid:PMC5025863 fatcat:oyez3tjfondndj6dqfxp7k5dxq

Phenome-wide Heritability Analysis of the UK Biobank [article]

Tian Ge, Chia-Yen Chen, Benjamin M. Neale, Mert R. Sabuncu, Jordan W. Smoller
2016 biorxiv/medrxiv   pre-print
Heritability estimation provides important information about the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to phenotypic variation, and provides an upper bound for the utility of genetic  ...  effect of three major demographic variables (age, sex and socioeconomic status) on the heritability estimates.  ...  For example, twin and pedigree studies have estimated the heritability of human height and body mass index (BMI) to be approximately 80% and 40-60% [see e.g., [19] [20] [21] , respectively, although recent  ... 
doi:10.1101/070177 fatcat:w5o77kjimjeavl7ibcwcatd7ta

Hand Pose Estimation through Semi-Supervised and Weakly-Supervised Learning [article]

Natalia Neverova, Christian Wolf, Florian Nebout, Graham Taylor
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a method for hand pose estimation based on a deep regressor trained on two different kinds of input.  ...  This intermediate representation contains important topological information and provides useful cues for reasoning about joint locations.  ...  Body part segmentation as an intermediate representation for joint estimation from depth images was successfully used by Shotton et al.  ... 
arXiv:1511.06728v4 fatcat:r4jbkd6poffs3h2ow6xmou4ej4

Magnetic resonance elastography measured shear stiffness as a biomarker of fibrosis in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Jeffrey B. Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Jorge Eduardo Angeles, Melissa Paiz, Janis Durelle, Jonathan Africa, Kimberly P. Newton, Elizabeth M. Brunt, Joel E. Lavine, Stephanie H. Abrams, Prakash Masand, Rajesh Krishnamurthy (+13 others)
2017 Hepatology  
MR elastograms were analyzed manually at two reading centers, and using a new automated technique. Analysis using each approach was done independently.  ...  Conclusion: 2D MRE can estimate hepatic stiffness in children with NAFLD. Further refinement and validation of automated analysis techniques will be an important step in standardizing MRE.  ...  Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Phlebotomy was performed after a 12-hour overnight fast.  ... 
doi:10.1002/hep.29241 pmid:28493388 fatcat:xsg6skbkevgxdou7r24ruq6hna

New methods for quantifying macroevolutionary patterns and processes

John Alroy
2000 Paleobiology  
The new methods are applied to updated faunal and body mass data sets for North American fossil mammals, documenting several key trends across the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic.  ...  ., an age range chart).  ...  Koch for comments on the manuscript, and S. Wing for his editorial solution to a Gordian-knot-like problem.  ... 
doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2000)026<0707:nmfqmp>2.0.co;2 fatcat:zv7lvg4mebggvcokmajfvdmrse

Mapping clinical outcomes to generic preference-based outcome measures: development and comparison of methods

Mónica Hernández Alava, Allan Wailoo, Stephen Pudney, Laura Gray, Andrea Manca
2020 Health Technology Assessment  
Results A range of criteria for assessing model performance is proposed. Theoretically, linear regression is inappropriate for mapping. Case studies confirm this.  ...  However, many methods for mapping yield biased results, distorting cost-effectiveness estimates.  ...  We found that distributional mismatch between the trial target population and the population used for mapping is a potential source of bias for CEAs that use mapping.  ... 
doi:10.3310/hta24340 pmid:32613941 fatcat:s3yo37i2sncmlbmhxj7wyrp3du

Explaining classifiers to understand coarse-grained models [article]

Aleksander Evren Paetzold Durumeric, Gregory A. Voth
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Bottom-up coarse-grained molecular dynamics models are parameterized using complex effective Hamiltonians.  ...  We propose that explainable machine learning can directly convey high-dimensional error to scientists and use Shapley additive explanations do so in two coarse-grained protein models.  ...  k-nearest neighbor regression (KNN regression) was used to map coordinates to UMAP co- ordinates using the following procedure. First, data was mapped to SHAP values; second, .  ... 
arXiv:2109.07337v1 fatcat:g5nt7j6xdre7rmn7ki5subi4xm

cpr: An R Package For Finding Parsimonious B-Spline Regression Models via Control Polygon Reduction and Control Net Reduction [article]

Peter E. DeWitt, Samantha MaWhinney, Nichole E. Carlson
2017 arXiv   pre-print
The cpr package provides the end user collections of tools for the construction of B-spline basis matrices, construction of control polygons and control nets, and the use of diagnostics of the CPR and  ...  The R package cpr provides tools for selection of parsimonious B-spline regression models via algorithms coined 'control polygon reduction' (CPR) and 'control net reduction' (CNR).  ...  Edward Bedrick for his help in framing the influence weight heuristic.  ... 
arXiv:1705.04756v1 fatcat:nh5r65irnbgrjpzkqo6wweqfpu

Statistical development and assessment of summary measures to account for isotopic clustering of Fourier transform mass spectrometry data in clinical diagnostic studies [article]

Alexia Kakourou, Werner Vach, Simone Nicolardi, Yuri van der Burgt and Bart Mertens
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Mass spectrometry based clinical proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool for highthroughput protein profiling and biomarker discovery.  ...  Information on either the intensity level or the shape of the identified isotopic clusters is used to derive summary measures on which diagnostic rules for disease status allocation will be based.  ...  Pairwise ratios can be calculated for either i or r. The analogous measure for l or r is to use the pairwise differences ∆ j j = x j − x j .  ... 
arXiv:1602.02908v1 fatcat:yklrpi6fcnbl5gyvnyuywohgme

Reserve-related activities and MRI metrics in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: an observational study

Carolyn E. Schwartz, Michael G. Dwyer, Ralph Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Niels P. Bergsland, Jei Li, Murali Ramanathan, Robert Zivadinov
2016 BMC Neurology  
Regression and non-parametric analysis examined relationships between MRI metrics and reserve-related activities.  ...  -(for CIS, RR, & SPMS) and amygdala-(for RR) volumes.  ...  Availability of data and materials Supporting documentation for our findings is provided in manuscript data and supplementary tables.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12883-016-0624-1 pmid:27430316 pmcid:PMC4949926 fatcat:acmqpa46cjbjhhc3l4q4ailh2u

Belief Network Analysis: A Relational Approach to Understanding the Structure of Attitudes

Andrei Boutyline, Stephen Vaisey
2017 American Journal of Sociology  
theoretically relevant measurements for such a system.  ...  Converse's (1964) classic description of a system of belief elements held together by pairwise constraint or functional interdependence fits this definition of a network.  ...  indexes for this network.  ... 
doi:10.1086/691274 fatcat:v3phxomahrat5hndslg44k4kmi
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