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On Search Friction of Route Discovery in Offchain Networks [article]

Saar Tochner, Stefan Schmid
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In particular, offchain networks typically rely on fees-based incentives and hence require mechanisms for the efficient discovery of "good routes": routes with low fees (cost efficiency) and a high success  ...  Finally, we initiate the discussion of alternative charging schemes for offchain networks.  ...  Figure 11 : 11 fee-effectiveness tradeoff in the Lightning network topology.  ... 
arXiv:2005.14676v1 fatcat:easc5za7grhzxpsqlgzdq7c4n4

Payment Network Design with Fees [chapter]

Georgia Avarikioti, Gerrit Janssen, Yuyi Wang, Roger Wattenhofer
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For a path graph, we present a polynomial time algorithm to assign optimal fees.  ...  Given a set of transactions, we examine the optimal graph structure and fee assignment to maximize the PSP's profit.  ...  Prihodko et al. introduced Flare [14] , a routing algorithm for the Lightning network. Flare can quickly discover routes but nodes need to collect information on the Lightning network topology.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-00305-0_6 fatcat:yxzugo2guraabbmgm2lryq5dkq

How to profit from payments channels [article]

Oguzhan Ersoy, Stefanie Roos, Zekeriya Erkin
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In Lightning, the key financial incentive is to lock collateral are small fees for routing payments for other participants.  ...  Payment channel networks like Bitcoin's Lightning network are an auspicious approach for realizing high transaction throughput and almost-instant confirmations in blockchain networks.  ...  In this manner, the authors presented a linear program solving the optimal fee assignment when the network is tree-structured, which is a very limiting assumption.  ... 
arXiv:1911.08803v2 fatcat:yyayj5fre5gelcyybxbzikc3sa

Hijacking Routes in Payment Channel Networks: A Predictability Tradeoff [article]

Saar Tochner, Stefan Schmid, Aviv Zohar
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We then turn to study an external attacker who creates links to the network and draws more routes through its nodes by asking for lower fees.  ...  We find that the three most common implementations for payment channels in Bitcoin (lnd, C-lightning, Eclair) approach routing differently.  ...  Thus, we hardly find any evidence for selfish optimizations of fees in the current network. Both properties may influence a potential attacker.  ... 
arXiv:1909.06890v1 fatcat:o2a47lpoozdwhjekxw7eig5ogy

Optimally Reliable Cheap Payment Flows on the Lightning Network [article]

Rene Pickhardt, Stefan Richter
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Today, payment paths in Bitcoin's Lightning Network are found by searching for shortest paths on the fee graph. We enhance this approach in two dimensions.  ...  We present a round-based algorithm of min-cost flow computations for delivering large payment amounts over the Lightning Network.  ...  Antonopoulos and Olaoluwa Osuntokun for accepting Rene's decision to temporarily prioritize this research over their Lightning Network book  ... 
arXiv:2107.05322v1 fatcat:ffhwscsyxrevtb4l3clutc3r3y

A Cryptoeconomic Traffic Analysis of Bitcoin's Lightning Network [article]

Ferenc Beres, Istvan Andras Seres, Andras A. Benczur
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Lightning Network (LN) is designed to amend the scalability and privacy issues of Bitcoin.  ...  We give worst-case estimates for the potential fee increase by assuming strong price competition among the routers.  ...  Kelen and Rene Pickhardt for insightful discussions. To our reviewers, Christian Decker, Cyril Grunspan and to our anonymous reviewer for their invaluable comments.  ... 
arXiv:1911.09432v3 fatcat:uer7dqy5kbglfjizfu3was3hmi

Blockchain-based Decentralized Storage Scheme

Yan Zhu, Chunli Lv, Zichuan Zeng, Jingfu Wang, Bei Pei
2019 Journal of Physics, Conference Series  
Storage provider performs a data integrity certificate to the user, and after verifying that the verification is passed, the user pays the storage fee to the storage provider through the lightning network  ...  Acknowledgments This research was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (61202479) and Information Network Security Key Laboratory Development Project of the Ministry of Public Security  ...  Lightning Network The Lightning Network [19] is mainly composed of two contracts: Sequence Expiration Revocable (RSMC) and Hash Time Locked Contract (HTLC).  ... 
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1237/4/042008 fatcat:4t67acayovg2niqdsncxcrqwfy

Blockchain-based Payment Channel Networks: Challenges and Recent Advances

Nikolaos Papadis, Leandros Tassiulas
2020 IEEE Access  
In any case, fee optimization [42] , [43] is an open area of research, especially as current fee structures might be economically irrational for many routing nodes, meaning that, for the current actual  ...  NETWORK AND FEE DESIGN AND INCENTIVIZATION 1) Channel creation and fee optimization Another interesting family of problems arises around the choices nodes can make on how to use their funds, which channels  ...  optimization.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3046020 fatcat:7vodn7z6abd53afgpkfffcg2hi

Optimizing Off-Chain Payment Networks in Cryptocurrencies [article]

Yotam Sali, Aviv Zohar
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We present for the first time, a closed model for symmetric off-chain channels, and provide efficient algorithms for constructing minimal cost spanning-tree networks under this model.  ...  In this paper we study the optimization of maintenance costs of such networks.  ...  Although some articles presented algorithms for this problem [29] , they have not proposed a closed model for effectiveness estimation.  ... 
arXiv:2007.09410v2 fatcat:mqfppb7hyrcrxgvpefesopdf6m

Can Lightning Network's Autopilot Function Use BA Model as the Underlying Network?

Zhen Wang, Rui Zhang, Yipeng Sun, Hong Ding, Qiuyun Lv
2022 Frontiers in Physics  
whether the Barabasi Albert Model as the underlying network for the autopilot function conforms to the real topology of the Lightning Network.  ...  In this paper, we construct the temporal network of Lightning Network and compare the topological properties of Lightning Network with those of Barabasi Albert Model of the same scale in detail.  ...  be the optimal network structure.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fphy.2021.794160 doaj:0ab89cccfcac4b7197609ef80179fa9a fatcat:in3i4kt7uzc35exacwfgtctbpy

Solutions to Scalability of Blockchain: A Survey

Qiheng Zhou, Huawei Huang, Zibin Zheng, Jing Bian
2020 IEEE Access  
For more information, see VOLUME 8, 2020  ...  This paper attempts to cover the existing scaling solutions for blockchain and classify them by level.  ...  These two disadvantages listed above greatly limit the wide-adoption of lightning networks. b: RAIDEN NETWORK Raiden Network is a payment-channel for Ethereum.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2967218 fatcat:xo2ys75jnfaerhlcirjybsbxai

Algorithmic Channel Design

Georgia Avarikioti, Yuyi Wang, Roger Wattenhofer, Michael Wagner
2018 International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation  
In this paper we study the design of capital-efficient payment networks, offline as well as online variants.  ...  We want to know how to compute an efficient payment network topology, how capital should be assigned to the individual edges, and how to decide which transactions to accept.  ...  [17] present Flare, an efficient routing algorithm for the Lightning network by collecting information on the network's local topology. Malavolta et al.  ... 
doi:10.4230/lipics.isaac.2018.16 dblp:conf/isaac/AvarikiotiWW18 fatcat:i6cvlpe6vzeo5fhirgvbjtmpeu

Wiser: Increasing Throughput in Payment Channel Networks with Transaction Aggregation [article]

Samarth Tiwari, Michelle Yeo, Zeta Avarikioti, Iosif Salem, Krzysztof Pietrzak, Stefan Schmid
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Payment channel networks (PCNs) are one of the most prominent solutions to the limited transaction throughput of blockchains.  ...  Two direct advantages of our proposal is the decrease in intermediary fees paid by senders as well as the obfuscation of the transaction data from the intermediaries.  ...  Also the Bitcoin Lightning Network comes with rebalancing plugins, e.g., c-lightning 10 and lnd 11 .  ... 
arXiv:2205.11597v1 fatcat:w4k3z4hhy5huln54ozcr4owvdy

Congestion Attacks in Payment Channel Networks [article]

Ayelet Mizrahi, Aviv Zohar
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present an accessible, low-cost attack in which the attacker paralyzes multiple payment network channels for several days.  ...  We evaluate the costs of these attacks on Bitcoin's Lightning Network and compare how changes in the network have affected the cost of attack.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Itay Cohen, Nir Lavee and Zvi Yishai for providing improvements in our network partitioning algorithms and analysis.  ... 
arXiv:2002.06564v4 fatcat:pueqv4u3rbatbccgqp3mahrrny

Topological Analysis of Bitcoin's Lightning Network [article]

István András Seres, László Gulyás, Dániel A. Nagy, Péter Burcsi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Bitcoin's Lightning Network (LN) is a scalability solution for Bitcoin allowing transactions to be issued with negligible fees and settled instantly at scale.  ...  LN's promise is that relatively few payment channels already enable anyone to efficiently, securely and privately route payments across the whole network.  ...  Furthermore we are thankful for Altangent Labs 8 for providing us the invaluable data.  ... 
arXiv:1901.04972v3 fatcat:z53pzjftw5c5vgv7mvrq35hfjm
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