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Multi-Agent Only Knowing [article]

Joseph Y. Halpern, Gerhard Lakemeyer
2000 arXiv   pre-print
Levesque introduced a notion of "only knowing", with the goal of capturing certain types of nonmonotonic reasoning. Levesque's logic dealt with only the case of a single agent.  ...  This leads us to reconsider what the properties of only knowing ought to be. We provide an axiom system that captures our desiderata, and show that it has a semantics that corresponds to it.  ...  Of course, as we suggested above, rather than only knowing, it seems more appropriate to reason about only knowing about a certain topic.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0001015v1 fatcat:cbgrdsxeyfgqrf6j6j4es6dtye

Multi-Agent Only-Knowing Revisited [article]

Vaishak Belle, Gerhard Lakemeyer
2010 arXiv   pre-print
Despite its appeal, all attempts to extend only-knowing to the many agent case have undesirable properties.  ...  Levesque introduced the notion of only-knowing to precisely capture the beliefs of a knowledge base.  ...  Multi-Agent Only-Knowing In this section, we return to the features of only-knowing discussed earlier and verify that the new semantics reasonably extends them to the multi-agent case.  ... 
arXiv:1009.2041v1 fatcat:lf4yaoig4zeorortxq6axcpcaa

Only knowing with degrees of confidence

Arild Waaler, Johan W. Klüwer, Tore Langholm, Espen H. Lian
2007 Journal of Applied Logic  
A new logic of belief (in the "only knowing" family) with confidence levels is presented.  ...  The logic allows a natural distinction between explicit and implicit belief representations, where the explicit form directly expresses its models.  ...  Our choice of title was dictated by the standard naming practice for "only knowing" logics.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jal.2006.03.007 fatcat:cdv2gl7t6fd7xfa4kndyubf7na

Multiagent Only Knowing in Dynamic Systems

V. Belle, G. Lakemeyer
2014 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
In this work, we propose a first-order multiagent framework with knowledge, actions, sensing and only knowing, that is shown to inherit all the features of the single agent version.  ...  The idea of "only knowing" a collection of sentences, as proposed by Levesque, has been previously shown to be very useful in characterizing knowledge-based agents: in terms of a specification, a precise  ...  Conclusions This work considered reasoning about only knowing with many agents in dynamic domains.  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.4192 fatcat:gz525lpngve2daecyk4lomm6yu

A First-Order Logic of Probability and Only Knowing in Unbounded Domains

Vaishak Belle, Gerhard Lakemeyer, Hector Levesque
Only knowing captures the intuitive notion that the beliefs of an agent are precisely those that follow from its knowledge base.  ...  It has previously been shown to be useful in characterizing knowledge-based reasoners, especially in a quantified setting.  ...  A less obvious property in the context of a universally quantified formula is the following: Only Knowing and Probabilities We take a closer look at the specification of knowledge bases and what they  ... 
doi:10.1609/aaai.v30i1.10108 fatcat:4tdvk5oco5cixkzy2ukwnnmjue

A critical reexamination of default logic, autoepistemic logic, and only knowing [chapter]

Joseph Y. Halpern
Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We explore this issue in the context on two of the best-known approaches, Reiter's default logic 1980] and Moore's autoepistemic logic 1985], as well as two related notions of \only knowing", due to Halpern  ...  However, given a problem in which nonmonotonic reasoning is called for, it is far from clear how one should go about modeling the problem using the various approaches.  ...  We show that one leads to autoepistemic logic and Levesque's \only knowing" approach, while another leads to the \only knowing" approach of Halpern and Moses.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bfb0022551 dblp:conf/kgc/Halpern93 fatcat:mbozsg5okreflkyuxipz5tawse

Reiter's Default Logic Is a Logic of Autoepistemic Reasoning And a Good One, Too [article]

Marc Denecker, Victor W. Marek, Miroslaw Truszczynski
2011 arXiv   pre-print
While each of them attempted to formalize autoepistemic propositions, the modes of reasoning in their respective logics were different.  ...  The first goal of this paper is to show that some problems of Reiter's default logic as a formal way to reason about informal defaults are directly attributable to the autoepistemic nature of default logic  ...  logic of only knowing and showed gaps and ambiguities in these intuitions, and various non-equivalent ways in which they could be formalized.  ... 
arXiv:1108.3278v1 fatcat:5an7m6atife55dq4sk6vyff46q

Chapter 6 Nonmonotonic Reasoning [chapter]

Gerhard Brewka, Ilkka Niemelä, Mirosław Truszczyński
2008 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence  
The logic uses two modal operators, K for belief and O for only knowing. Levesque showed that his logic captures autoepistemic logic.  ...  Levesque was the first to capture this notion in his logic of only-knowing [69] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1574-6526(07)03006-4 fatcat:7r4l7tqgn5hfjok7yqbuxj5xwa

Modal logics for qualitative possibility theory

Craig Boutilier
1994 International Journal of Approximate Reasoning  
Possibilistic logic has been proposed as a numerical formalism for reasoning with uncertainty.  ...  We present two modal logics that can be used to represent and reason with qualitative statements of possibility and necessity.  ...  For a more complete discussion of only knowing see [16, 24, 25] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/0888-613x(94)90015-9 fatcat:vyrmwctm4zglbeuuepljj3gek4

Modal Logics for Qualitative Possibility and Beliefs [chapter]

Craig Boutilier
1992 Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence  
We present two modal logics that can be used to represent and reason with qual itative statements of possibility and necessity.  ...  Possibilistic logic has been proposed as a nu merical formalism for reasoning with uncertainty.  ...  In particular, these logics allow us to express the concept of only knowing.  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-1-4832-8287-9.50007-4 fatcat:6uhma3a7urhixpxh2zavbttvay

Embedding nonground logic programs into autoepistemic logic for knowledge-base combination

Jos De Bruijn, Thomas Eiter, Axel Polleres, Hans Tompits
2011 ACM Transactions on Computational Logic  
Autoepistemic logic (AEL) is an attractive formalism which allows to overcome these limitations, by serving as a uniform host language to embed ontologies and nonmonotonic logic programs into it.  ...  We compare the embeddings with respect to stable expansions and autoepistemic consequences, considering the embeddings by themselves, as well as combinations with classical theories.  ...  Levesque [1990] defined the logic of only knowing (see also [Levesque and Lakemeyer, 2000] ), which is essentially a superset of FO-AEL.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1929954.1929957 fatcat:qsowrks2lvcw7hwz2lci2js47m

Embedding Non-Ground Logic Programs into Autoepistemic Logic for Knowledge Base Combination [article]

Jos de Bruijn, Thomas Eiter, Axel Polleres, Hans Tompits
2010 arXiv   pre-print
Autoepistemic logic (AEL) is an attractive formalism which allows to overcome these limitations, by serving as a uniform host language to embed ontologies and nonmonotonic logic programs into it.  ...  We compare the embeddings with respect to stable expansions and autoepistemic consequences, considering the embeddings by themselves, as well as combinations with classical theories.  ...  Levesque and Lakemeyer [2000] present a sound, but incomplete proof theory for the logic of only knowing, which extends FO-AEL with standard names.  ... 
arXiv:0811.0359v3 fatcat:rqwms2zzu5hfpnaluooi7mwv4m

Towards a Unified Algebraic Framework for Non-Monotonicity

Nourhan Ehab, Haythem O. Ismail
2018 Deutsche Jahrestagung für Künstliche Intelligenz  
Tremendous research e↵ort has been dedicated over the years to thoroughly investigate non-monotonic reasoning.  ...  We show how to encode possibilistic theories as LogAG theories, and prove that the LogAG logical consequence relation subsumes its possibilistic counterpart.  ...  Later, it was proved that only knowing can capture a class of default logic [16] , and circumscription [5] . Our current approach is to relate Log A G to Levesque's logic of only knowing.  ... 
dblp:conf/ki/EhabI18 fatcat:qfja2fwrz5dendwikcm3z7u3je

Universe of Discourse and Existence

José Usó-Doménech, Josué Nescolarde-Selva, Hugh Gash
2018 Mathematics  
It is possible to deduce that formal existence is nothing other than belonging to the universe of discourse, so proposing a solution to the logical problem of existence in an epistemological, rather than  ...  Autoepistemic reasoning differs from default reasoning because the latter is defeasible, while the former is not.  ...  As Moore [18] says, there are two different forms of nonmonotonic reasoning: Autoepistemic and default reasoning.  ... 
doi:10.3390/math6110272 fatcat:2b2lf36xtnbl5os7qexpbglswa

Edited transcription of the workshop on defeasible reasoning with specificity and multiple inheritance St. Louis, April 1989

Jennie Dorosh, Ronald P. Loui
1990 ACM SIGART Bulletin  
Neufeld: It flies, obviously. You only know it's a bird. Pearl: Only shift belief. Not acceptance. Etherington: You cannot say which one is higher?  ...  Autoepistemic logic doesn't do it well. So what we did was expand autoepistemic logic to add some explanatory power. Later, we found some way to say it in classical autoepistemic logic.  ... 
doi:10.1145/122388.122389 fatcat:xqpkc37n75biheym7vydc6w5zi
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