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Online Estimation of Architectural Vulnerability Factor for Soft Errors

Xiaodong Li, Sarita V. Adve, Pradip Bose, Jude A. Rivers
2008 SIGARCH Computer Architecture News  
For such adaptation, it is important to be able to accurately estimate the amount of masking or the architecture vulnerability factor (AVF) online, while the program is running.  ...  Prior research has shown that there is significant architecture-level masking, and many soft error solutions take advantage of this effect.  ...  [10] introduced the term architectural vulnerability factor (AVF) to quantify the architectural masking of raw soft errors in a processor structure.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1394608.1382150 fatcat:atx2nzf5jvaihfrz3vgy5doihq

Online Estimation of Architectural Vulnerability Factor for Soft Errors

Xiaodong Li, Sarita V. Adve, Pradip Bose, Jude A. Rivers
2008 2008 International Symposium on Computer Architecture  
For such adaptation, it is important to be able to accurately estimate the amount of masking or the architecture vulnerability factor (AVF) online, while the program is running.  ...  Prior research has shown that there is significant architecture-level masking, and many soft error solutions take advantage of this effect.  ...  [10] introduced the term architectural vulnerability factor (AVF) to quantify the architectural masking of raw soft errors in a processor structure.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isca.2008.9 dblp:conf/isca/LiABR08 fatcat:ldtt763i2ng7tedsdg6v635sky

Measuring architectural vulnerability factors

S.S. Mukherjee, C.T. Weaver, J. Emer, S.K. Reinhardt, T. Austin
2003 IEEE Micro  
HERE, THE AUTHORS PRESENT A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE ARCHITECTURAL VULNERABILITY FACTOR-THE PROBABILITY THAT A FAULT IN A PARTICULAR STRUCTURE WILL RESULT IN AN ERROR. Shubhendu S.  ...  MEASURING ARCHITECTURAL VULNERABILITY FACTORS Thus, while Moore's law gives us exponential transistor count increases, this bounty comes at the cost of exponential error rate increases for unprotected  ... 
doi:10.1109/mm.2003.1261389 fatcat:bguqijogzzavzfgsl3egoc32rm

CLASS: Combined logic and architectural soft error sensitivity analysis

M. Ebrahimi, Liang Chen, H. Asadi, M. B. Tahoori
2013 2013 18th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC)  
In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach integrating architecture-level and logic-level techniques to accurately estimate the vulnerability of all regular and irregular structures within a microprocessor  ...  With continuous technology downscaling, the rate of radiation induced soft errors is rapidly increasing.  ...  at micro-architecture level) in order to estimate the vulnerability of the entire system.  ... 
doi:10.1109/aspdac.2013.6509664 dblp:conf/aspdac/EbrahimiCAT13 fatcat:lfga4mjqibdzrofnssuqxisuvq

Fault-Tolerant Computing with Heterogeneous Hardening Modes [chapter]

Florian Kriebel, Faiq Khalid, Bharath Srinivas Prabakaran, Semeen Rehman, Muhammad Shafique
2020 Embedded Systems  
We provide a comprehensive reliability, i.e., soft error, vulnerability analysis of different components in in-order and out-of-order processors, e.g., caches.  ...  like caches, for heterogeneous in-order and out-of-order processors.  ...  We would like to thank Arun Subramaniyan, Duo Sun and Segnon Jean Bruno Ahandagbe for their contributions to parts of the works cited in this chapter.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-52017-5_7 fatcat:d3wgo4fcvfcldgmhl2hfido5ee

Soft error vulnerability aware process variation mitigation

Xin Fu, Tao Li, Jose A. B. Fortes
2009 2009 IEEE 15th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture  
It tolerates the deleterious impact of variable latency techniques on soft error reliability by reducing the quantity and residency cycle of vulnerable bits in the microarchitecture structure at a fine  ...  We explore two techniques that can effectively mitigate the effect of design parameter variation while significantly enhancing microarchitecture soft error reliability.  ...  As can be seen, Structure-BVM requires online AVF estimation for the structure.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpca.2009.4798241 dblp:conf/hpca/FuLF09 fatcat:ghsflmtfv5ajbausi567pqf6be

Multi-layer software reliability for unreliable hardware

Muhammad Shafique, Philip Axer, Christoph Borchert, Jian-Jia Chen, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Björn Döbel, Rolf Ernst, Hermann Härtig, Andreas Heinig, Rüdiger Kapitza, Florian Kriebel, Daniel Lohmann (+4 others)
2015 it - Information Technology  
We show how multiple software layers synergistically operate to achieve a high degree of reliability.  ...  We present a comprehensive design flow that integrates multiple software layers while accounting for the knowledge from lower hardware layers.  ...  Our Instruction Vulnerability Index (IVI), Instruction Masking Index, and Error Propagation Index models estimate the error vulnerabilities, error masking probabilities, and error propagation effects,  ... 
doi:10.1515/itit-2014-1081 fatcat:q4vxxqgiznasnl45dbz4gsjgee

Predicting Architectural Vulnerability on Multithreaded Processors under Resource Contention and Sharing

Lide Duan, Lu Peng, Bin Li
2013 IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing  
Architectural vulnerability factor (AVF) characterizes a processor's vulnerability to soft errors.  ...  By utilizing the proposed scheme, we can accurately estimate any unseen program's soft error vulnerability under resource contention and sharing with any other program(s), on an arbitrarily configured  ...  Based on this observation, architectural vulnerability factor (AVF) [28] , [4] was proposed to quantify the probability that a soft error finally produces a visible error in the program output.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdsc.2012.87 fatcat:fmrjtjc2qvawbfyv3rosdkymv4

Accurate and Simplified Prediction of L2 Cache Vulnerability for Cost-Efficient Soft Error Protection

Yu CHENG, Anguo MA, Minxuan ZHANG
2012 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
for accurate soft error rate estimation.  ...  Architectural vulnerability factor (AVF), which is defined as the probability that a transient fault in the structure would result in a visible error in the final output of a program, has been widely employed  ...  [9] introduced the concept of Architectural Vulnerability Factor (AVF) for the measurement of soft error rate. And Biswas et al.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e95.d.56 fatcat:r3uymjq6qbbrjkjeuuqnao56r4

Optimizing Issue Queue Reliability to Soft Errors on Simultaneous Multithreaded Architectures

Xin Fu, Wangyuan Zhang, Tao Li, José Fortes
2008 2008 37th International Conference on Parallel Processing  
In this paper, we explore microarchitecture techniques to optimize IQ reliability to soft error on SMT architectures.  ...  Extensive simulation results show that, on average, our microarchitecture level soft error mitigation techniques can significantly reduce IQ vulnerability by 42% with 1% performance improvement.  ...  Results are shown in the form of the architecture vulnerability factor (AVF) [4] of a hardware structure which estimates the probability that a transient fault in that hardware structure will produce  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpp.2008.23 dblp:conf/icpp/FuZLF08 fatcat:zk27gnhemrbcdglrcw2xdfbghu

IVF: Characterizing the vulnerability of microprocessor structures to intermittent faults

Songjun Pan, Yu Hu, Xiaowei Li
2010 2010 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE 2010)  
Prior researches have proposed several metrics to analyze the vulnerability of microprocessor structures to soft errors and hard faults, however, the vulnerability of these structures to intermittent faults  ...  In this work, we propose a metric intermittent vulnerability factor (IVF) to characterize the vulnerability of microprocessor structures to intermittent faults.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/date.2010.5457206 dblp:conf/date/PanHL10 fatcat:irh2nbuqpbfu7ctmfwqcqsgsia

Global Signal Vulnerability (GSV) Analysis for Selective State Element Hardening in Modern Microprocessors

Michail Maniatakos, Chandrasekharan Tirumurti, Rajesh Galivanche, Yiorgos Makris
2012 IEEE transactions on computers  
Global Signal Vulnerability (GSV) analysis is a novel method for assessing the susceptibility of modern microprocessor state elements to failures in the field of operation.  ...  In order to effectively allocate design for reliability resources, GSV analysis takes into account the high degree of architectural masking exhibited in modern microprocessors and ranks state elements  ...  RANKING BASED ON ARCHITECTURAL VULNERABILITY FACTOR (AVF) The notion of Architectural Vulnerability Factor has been extensively used in the past to rank state elements based on their criticality to program  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.2011.172 fatcat:6n2my6zva5fhjfofadxl7v4upq

IVF: Characterizing the Vulnerability of Microprocessor Structures to Intermittent Faults

Songjun Pan, Yu Hu, Xiaowei Li
2012 IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems  
Prior researches have proposed several metrics to analyze the vulnerability of microprocessor structures to soft errors and hard faults, however, the vulnerability of these structures to intermittent faults  ...  In this work, we propose a metric intermittent vulnerability factor (IVF) to characterize the vulnerability of microprocessor structures to intermittent faults.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvlsi.2011.2134115 fatcat:nwbjz3giivduff736u4kdy2xc4

Managing multi-core soft-error reliability through utility-driven cross domain optimization

Wangyuan Zhang, Tao Li
2008 2008 International Conference on Application-Specific Systems, Architectures and Processors  
Extensive experimental results show that, on average, our utility-driven cross domain optimization reduces the soft error rate of the most vulnerable core in a Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) by up to 35% and  ...  Packaging multiple cores (and hence more transistors) onto the same die exposes more devices to soft error strikes.  ...  The vulnerability factor in this formula is determined by several factors such as timing, architecture vulnerability factor (AVF), etc.  ... 
doi:10.1109/asap.2008.4580167 dblp:conf/asap/ZhangL08 fatcat:jtgrmegranaxjha544gu2ick7m

Ground-Truth Prediction to Accelerate Soft-Error Impact Analysis for Iterative Methods

Burcu O. Mutlu, Gokcen Kestor, Adrian Cristal, Osman Unsal, Sriram Krishnamoorthy
2019 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on High Performance Computing, Data, and Analytics (HiPC)  
We demonstrate the effectiveness of the ground truth prediction model in evaluating vulnerability and the effectiveness of soft error detection strategies in the context of iterative methods.  ...  Understanding the impact of soft errors on applications can be expensive.  ...  Farahani et al. leverages the architecture vulnerability factor to create an online reliability prediction mechanism for transient faults [40] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/hipc.2019.00048 dblp:conf/hipc/MutluKCUK19 fatcat:wyiuvdpi5jgcvhaj4gcn5jtacq
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