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A study of the uniqueness of source code

Mark Gabel, Zhendong Su
2010 Proceedings of the eighteenth ACM SIGSOFT international symposium on Foundations of software engineering - FSE '10  
This paper presents the results of the first study of the uniqueness of source code.  ...  a precise measure of 'uniqueness' that we call syntactic redundancy.  ...  The bulk of the syntactic redundancy is exhibited at significant, but still fairly low, levels of granularity: 6 to 40 tokens, or approximately one to seven lines of code.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1882291.1882315 dblp:conf/sigsoft/GabelS10 fatcat:h2gnxgkgsfbyloolfrvpa7rmai

Fundamental limits of universal lossless one-to-one compression of parametric sources

Ahmad Beirami, Faramarz Fekri
2014 2014 IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW 2014)  
A converse bound is obtained on the average minimax (and maximin) redundancy that shows the redundancy is at least (d−2)/2 log n+O(1) for the universal compression of a sequence of length n from a d-dimensional  ...  Further, the type-size coding strategy is shown to be minimax optimal up to o(log n) for the class of memoryless sources, achieving the converse leading to characterization of the fundamental performance  ...  Beirami was affiliated with Georgia Institute of Technology. The work of A. Beirami and F. Fekri was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant No. CNS-1017234.  ... 
doi:10.1109/itw.2014.6970823 dblp:conf/itw/BeiramiF14 fatcat:6fr77rufz5h5jpewvlevryl6wy

DNA sequencing of four bases using three lanes

Michael Nelson, James L. Van Etten, Reingard Grabherr
1992 Nucleic Acids Research  
A three-lane DNA sequencing strategy is described which is based on redundant binary coding principles from communications theory.  ...  Communications theory and algebraic coding principles can also be applied to sequencing other informational macromolecules.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Les Lane, Roy French, Michael McClelland, and Myron Brakke for comments on the manuscript and Hagsdan Piperman for secretarial assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1093/nar/20.6.1345 pmid:1561092 pmcid:PMC312181 fatcat:m6tqhvrpynflzfmdyitijgskpy

Retinal Coding of Visual Scenes— Repetitive and Redundant Too?

Eran A. Mukamel, Mark J. Schnitzer
2005 Neuron  
The auganglion cells' visual messages are unique can be adthors find substantial redundancy in the retinal code dressed by examining statistics of the appropriate symand estimate that there is an w10-fold  ...  whether two unique has long been attractive (reviewed by Barlow, cells jointly convey more (synergistic coding), the same 2001).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.04.018 pmid:15882630 fatcat:xbebmuy67bffbkzg2sr3adj33m

Perceptual grouping boosts visual working memory capacity and reduces effort during retention

Candice Morey
2017 Journal of Vision  
The prevailing explanation suggests that duplicated colours are encoded as one perceptual group.  ...  Increased redundancy was indeed associated with higher estimated working memory capacity, both for tests of duplicates and uniquely-coloured items.  ...  one colour) to make three levels, coding for only presence of redundancy at study (distinguishing between the finer 3-level coding, the grosser 2-level coding) but disregarding test type, and finally coding  ... 
doi:10.1167/17.10.1111 fatcat:3firayhwfnbq5b247frig7ygp4

Redundant stimulus coding and keeping-track performance

David G. Alden, Jacelyn R. Wedell, Arnold F. Kanarick
1971 Psychonomic Science  
Kanarick & Petersen (in press) investigated the effect of redundant color coding, in which the stimulus was uniquely identified by both a primary dimension and a secondary color code, on keeping-track  ...  The effect of redundant color coding on keeping-track performance was investigated, using symbols as the primary cue.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03332568 fatcat:uhesujmyabfsrcmsqfapf7okva

SEARS: Space efficient and reliable storage system in the cloud

Ying Li, Katherine Guo, Xin Wang, Emina Soljanin, Thomas Woo
2015 2015 IEEE 40th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN)  
We present SEARS, a cloud-based storage system which integrates erasure coding and data deduplication to support efficient and reliable data storage with fast user response time.  ...  With proper association of data to storage server clusters, SEARS provides flexible mixing of different configurations, suitable for real-time and archival applications.  ...  Unique chunks for the file missing from SEARS are sent to and coded at the coding node which is one of the server nodes in the cluster storing code pieces of the chunks for the file.  ... 
doi:10.1109/lcn.2015.7366342 dblp:conf/lcn/LiGWSW15 fatcat:hb6jodfyfbhbhe5x53vjejohsa

On the impact of redundant subcarrier energy optimization in UW-OFDM

Christian Hofbauer, Mario Huemer, Johannes B. Huber
2010 2010 4th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems  
This gain in the BER performance comes with an increase of the redundancy part and thus with a decrease of the data rate. As such, we present methods to vary the coding rate in UW-OFDM.  ...  In this paper, we investigate methods to improve the BER behavior of UW-OFDM by increasing the number of redundant subcarriers (while keeping the length of the UW constant).  ...  The specific gain in performance depends on the outer coding rate r, but also on the inner coding rate determined by the number N r of redundant subcarriers. V.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icspcs.2010.5709697 fatcat:l66xly2hgba3zhaj5ve4c56kay

Complex number RS coded OFDM with systematic noise in the guard interval

Mario Huemer, Christian Hofbauer, Johannes B. Huber
2010 2010 Conference Record of the Forty Fourth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers  
In this paper we introduce a method that significantly reduces the energy of the redundant subcarrier symbols by allowing some systematic noise in the UWs.  ...  The UWs are generated by appropriately loading so-called redundant subcarriers.  ...  The construction of T, and thus also the variances of the redundant subcarrier symbols, highly depend on the choice of P.  ... 
doi:10.1109/acssc.2010.5757556 fatcat:fsdkoscgw5b3thpewm4zydzap4

High Availability in DHTs: Erasure Coding vs. Replication [chapter]

Rodrigo Rodrigues, Barbara Liskov
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Unlike previous comparisons, we take the characteristics of the nodes that comprise the overlay into account, and conclude that in some cases the benefits from coding are limited, and may not be worth  ...  High availability in peer-to-peer DHTs requires data redundancy. This paper compares two popular redundancy schemes: replication and erasure coding.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Jeremy Stribling, the Farsite team at MSR, and the Total Recall team at UCSD for supplying the data collected in their studies.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11558989_21 fatcat:uenyjj2pyfexzizuagprd5eokq

Eliminating redundancies with a "composition with adaptation" meta-programming technique

Stan Jarzabek, Li Shubiao
2003 Proceedings of the 9th European software engineering conference held jointly with 10th ACM SIGSOFT international symposium on Foundations of software engineering - ESEC/FSE '03  
While most experts agree on that, opinions -on how serious the problem of redundancies really is and how to tackle it -differ.  ...  We effectively eliminated that 68% of code at the meta-level using a technique based on "composition with adaptation" called XVCL.  ...  re-designed the Buffer library with JSR-14.  ... 
doi:10.1145/940103.940104 fatcat:tz5k6sldkvb63d2korth37mujq

Eliminating redundancies with a "composition with adaptation" meta-programming technique

Stan Jarzabek, Li Shubiao
2003 Proceedings of the 9th European software engineering conference held jointly with 10th ACM SIGSOFT international symposium on Foundations of software engineering - ESEC/FSE '03  
While most experts agree on that, opinions -on how serious the problem of redundancies really is and how to tackle it -differ.  ...  We effectively eliminated that 68% of code at the meta-level using a technique based on "composition with adaptation" called XVCL.  ...  re-designed the Buffer library with JSR-14.  ... 
doi:10.1145/940071.940104 dblp:conf/sigsoft/JarzabekS03 fatcat:4gh5gvf3qnfm7fygbncn7yhv5y

Eliminating redundancies with a "composition with adaptation" meta-programming technique

Stan Jarzabek, Li Shubiao
2003 Software engineering notes  
While most experts agree on that, opinions -on how serious the problem of redundancies really is and how to tackle it -differ.  ...  We effectively eliminated that 68% of code at the meta-level using a technique based on "composition with adaptation" called XVCL.  ...  re-designed the Buffer library with JSR-14.  ... 
doi:10.1145/949952.940104 fatcat:wijc5osyhngqdhf6fbbbopu4jq

Coded OFDM by Unique Word Prefix [article]

Mario Huemer, Christian Hofbauer, Johannes B. Huber
2010 arXiv   pre-print
Furthermore, the proposed approach introduces a complex number Reed-Solomon (RS-) code structure within the sequence of subcarriers.  ...  Instead of the conventional cyclic prefix we use a deterministic sequence, which we call unique word (UW), as guard interval.  ...  We notice that the construction of T, and therefore also the variances of the redundant subcarriers highly depend on the positions of the redundant subcarriers within the entire frequency domain vectorx  ... 
arXiv:1001.1298v1 fatcat:tzw5vbjnkfd3xl4kgqd5axfun4

Worst-case Redundancy of Optimal Binary AIFV Codes and their Extended Codes [article]

Weihua Hu, Hirosuke Yamamoto, Junya Honda
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Nevertheless, an upper bound on the redundancy of optimal binary AIFV codes is only known to be 1, which is the same as the bound of Huffman codes.  ...  We show that the worst-case redundancy of the extended binary AIFV codes is 1/m for m ≤ 4.  ...  First, we present a non-trivial theoretical result on the redundancy of optimal binary AIFV codes, suggesting superiority of the codes over Huffman codes.  ... 
arXiv:1607.07247v4 fatcat:pqj634o2hbcetdvssnl6ugwlqq
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