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Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits

Xiao Yuan, Ke Liu, Yuan Xu, Weiting Wang, Yuwei Ma, Fang Zhang, Zhaopeng Yan, R. Vijay, Luyan Sun, Xiongfeng Ma
2016 Physical Review Letters  
In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement.  ...  Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.  ...  About half of the prepared p-coins are measured in the X basis to prepare the q-coin. q th is the theoretically estimated value based on the estimation of p; qexp is the experimentally estimated value  ... 
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.117.010502 pmid:27419550 fatcat:h37tkttgrvavjeerhpxhunwayi

Dynamic-disorder-induced enhancement of entanglement in photonic quantum walks

Qin-Qin Wang, Xiao-Ye Xu, Wei-Wei Pan, Kai Sun, Jin-Shi Xu, Geng Chen, Yong-Jian Han, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
2018 Optica  
Through reconstructing the local spinor state for each site, von Neumann entropy can be obtained and used to quantify the coin-position entanglement.  ...  Our results are inspirational for achieving quantum computing based on quantum walks.  ...  Theoretically, the enhancement of coin-position entanglement is not dependent on the specific form of the coin tossing sequence when randomness is introduced, and the number of the steps is infinite.  ... 
doi:10.1364/optica.5.001136 fatcat:e7ee57k54ve73hopwafoufwv6q

A Full Characterization of Functions that Imply Fair Coin Tossing and Ramifications to Fairness [chapter]

Gilad Asharov, Yehuda Lindell, Tal Rabin
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we focus on the class of deterministic Boolean functions with finite domain, and we ask for which functions in this class is it possible to information-theoretically toss an unbiased coin  ...  We provide a complete characterization of the functions in this class that imply and do not imply fair coin tossing.  ...  Then, f does not information-theoretically imply the coin-tossing protocol.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36594-2_14 fatcat:qxtcl6ic5bgttfhkcaho3hrpxm

Quantum Cryptography: Key Distribution and Beyond

Akshata Shenoy-Hejamadi, Anirban Pathak, Srikanth Radhakrishna
2017 Quanta  
We review the progress of quantum cryptography in the last decade, covering quantum key distribution and other applications.</p><p>Quanta 2017; 6: 1–47.</p>  ...  <p>Uniquely among the sciences, quantum cryptography has driven both foundational research as well as practical real-life applications.  ...  For a similar reason, the impossibility of quantum coin tossing is also accepted to hold generally [228] .  ... 
doi:10.12743/quanta.v6i1.57 fatcat:nwczh5zqjjch3abhrpcjb34ry4

Composable Adaptive Secure Protocols Without Setup Under Polytime Assumptions [chapter]

Carmit Hazay, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we provide the first general construction of secure multi-party computation protocol without any setup that guarantees composable security in the presence of an adaptive adversary based on  ...  Next, we revisit the zero-one law for two-party secure functions evaluation initiated by the work of Maji, Prabhakaran and Rosulek (CRYPTO 2010).  ...  We argue this by relying on the information-theoretic lemma proved in [HV15] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-53641-4_16 fatcat:7mqiz66zhbax5iugapjuzgdoeq

Null Models for Formal Contexts

Maximilian Felde, Tom Hanika, Gerd Stumme
2020 Information  
We recollect and analyze the classical coin-toss model, recapitulate some of its shortcomings and examine its stochastic properties.  ...  Null model generation for formal contexts is an important task in the realm of formal concept analysis.  ...  Coin-Toss-Direct Model Given a set of attributes M we construct I ⊆ G × M utilizing a direct coin-toss model as follows.  ... 
doi:10.3390/info11030135 fatcat:5u4nmmiaszdqrotyjpzgtaaue4

Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory

Qiuping Wang
2003 Entropy  
Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy .  ...  The concomitant incomplete statistical p p S  ...  Acknowledgments I acknowledge with great pleasure the useful discussions with Professors A. Le Méhauté, Dr. L. Nivanen and Prof. J.P. Badiali on some points of this work.  ... 
doi:10.3390/e5020220 fatcat:yrqx4yzaefhzvfbw7ujbk6kdqm

Unification of Epistemic and Ontic Concepts of Information, Probability, and Entropy, Using Cognizers-System Model

Toshiyuki Nakajima
2019 Entropy  
Based on the results, a perspective for resolving controversial issues of entropy originating from information and probability is presented.  ...  Information and probability, epistemic and ontic, are formalized and analyzed systematically using a common theoretical framework of the CS model or a related model.  ...  These comments were helpful in situating the paper in a wider context of research fields. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/e21020216 pmid:33266931 fatcat:evodztzkvrhofjax2z3dn754ou

Limits on reliable information flows through stochastic populations

Lucas Boczkowski, Emanuele Natale, Ofer Feinerman, Amos Korman, Natalia L. Komarova
2018 PLoS Computational Biology  
Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Brieuc Guinard for helpful comments on an early version of this draft.  ...  Part of this work was done while Emanuele Natale was a fellow of the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing.  ...  The wear induced by tossing the coins may, with time, change the probability that they land on either heads or tails in a way that depends on the coin type as well as on the previous toss outcomes (observations  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006195 pmid:29874234 pmcid:PMC6005642 fatcat:u4txntr3b5buxafx7ixbnezhla

Randomized Consensus in Wireless Environments: A Case Where More is Better

Bruno Vavala, Nuno Neves, Henrique Moniz, Paulo Veríssimo
2010 2010 Third International Conference on Dependability  
In spite of the added time complexity, the experiments confirm that our extension and some other implementation heuristics non-trivially boost the speed to reach consensus.  ...  However, the sharing of the radio medium and the typical communication failures of such environments may seriously hinder this operation.  ...  We show how these extensions can exploit the available information in order to increase performance.  ... 
doi:10.1109/depend.2010.9 fatcat:xmfc2a4vavhuljtz6y75f2tpki

Estimating Gaps in Martingales and Applications to Coin-Tossing: Constructions and Hardness [article]

Hamidreza Amini Khorasgani, Hemanta K. Maji, Tamalika Mukherjee
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Consider designing a distributed coin-tossing protocol for n processors such that the probability of heads is X0 in [0,1], and an adversary can reset one processor to change the distribution of the final  ...  In particular, for any X0 in [0,1], we construct martingales that yield 1/2√(X_0(1-X_0)/n) insecure coin-tossing protocols with n-bit communication; irrespective of the number of bits required to represent  ...  Theorem 12 extends the fail-stop attack of [14] on 2-party bias-X 0 coin-tossing protocols (in the information-theoretic commitment hybrid).  ... 
arXiv:1907.01694v2 fatcat:uvwaec4at5grll2dt54vs6misu

Polling with Physical Envelopes: A Rigorous Analysis of a Human-Centric Protocol [chapter]

Tal Moran, Moni Naor
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
One of the main innovations of this work is the use of techniques from theoretical cryptography to rigorously prove the security of a realistic, physical protocol.  ...  We show that, given a few properties of physical envelopes, the protocols are unconditionally secure in the universal composability framework.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Adi Shamir and Yossi Oren for pointing out possible side-channel attacks in the scratch-off card model, and the anonymous reviewers for many helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11761679_7 fatcat:sfz4rnxo7bccrin45cohkz3yky

Accelerating Amoebots via Reconfigurable Circuits [article]

Michael Feldmann, Andreas Padalkin, Christian Scheideler, Shlomi Dolev
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Finally, we show that the amoebots can detect a shape composed of triangles within O(1) rounds, w.h.p.  ...  We show that such an extension allows for significantly faster solutions to a variety of problems related to programmable matter.  ...  The coin toss of region R is successful iff all coin tosses of its candidates C R coincide. Otherwise, the coin toss fails.  ... 
arXiv:2105.05071v1 fatcat:mi2btzbxzred5fzdkedwzgztci

A Zero-One Law for Cryptographic Complexity with Respect to Computational UC Security [chapter]

Hemanta K. Maji, Manoj Prabhakaran, Mike Rosulek
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
On the other hand, if a task like fair coin-tossing is available as a trusted setup, then all cryptographic tasks have UCsecure protocols.  ...  One important technical contribution in this work is to initiate the comprehensive study of the cryptographic properties of reactive functionalities.  ...  The protocol in Theorem 2 was simplified from its original form in an earlier manuscript, partly motivated by the recent results of [8] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14623-7_32 fatcat:3dumwbxy25dond3sfqfevcbvoq

Playing with a Quantum Computer [article]

Rainer Müller, Franziska Greinert
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We can therefore use it to teach the programming of a quantum computer. We demonstrate its implementation in IBM's Quantum Composer.  ...  Specifically, we want to take advantage of the access to real quantum computers, which various providers make available free of charge.  ...  Acknowledgement This work has received funding by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 951787.  ... 
arXiv:2108.06271v1 fatcat:oyrt4hyiqnga3a7prunztzgktq
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