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On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models [article]

Rishi Bommasani, Drew A. Hudson, Ehsan Adeli, Russ Altman, Simran Arora, Sydney von Arx, Michael S. Bernstein, Jeannette Bohg, Antoine Bosselut, Emma Brunskill, Erik Brynjolfsson, Shyamal Buch (+102 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical  ...  AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks.  ...  Acknowledgments References ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank the following people for their valuable feedback: Mohit Bansal, Boaz Barak, Yoshua Bengio, Sam Bowman, Collin Burns, Nicholas Carlini  ... 
arXiv:2108.07258v2 fatcat:yktkv4diyrgzzfzqlpvaiabc2m

Foreign Exchange Risk and Profit Improvement in the Comprehensive Profit Opportunity and Lost Opportunity Control Model

Akira Nishimura
2016 International Journal of Business and Management  
from the synthetic viewpoint of profit opportunity, risk, and opportunity cost.  ...  The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of foreign exchange risks on manufacturing activities (monozukuri in Japanese) and the function of derivatives as a countermeasure against such risk from  ...  Acknowledgements This paper owes much to the theoretical framework that Professor Imai represented diagrammatically about "proactive slack" in the conference of the Japanese Association of Management Accounting  ... 
doi:10.5539/ijbm.v11n4p1 fatcat:whzmymvygja7rjctbksz43vkmq

Risks of AI Foundation Models in Education [article]

Su Lin Blodgett, Michael Madaio
2021 arXiv   pre-print
If the authors of a recent Stanford report (Bommasani et al., 2021) on the opportunities and risks of "foundation models" are to be believed, these models represent a paradigm shift for AI and for the  ...  Although the name is new (and contested (Field, 2021)), the term describes existing types of algorithmic models that are "trained on broad data at scale" and "fine-tuned" (i.e., adapted) for particular  ...  In part, the proposed application of foundation models for education brings with it risks for reproducing and amplifying the existing inequitable status quo in education, as well as risks of reproducing  ... 
arXiv:2110.10024v1 fatcat:rnoeoq3gfjdmzd3luleuqcdzfq

Supply chain disruption assessment based on the newsvendor model

Yisong Li, Xiaofei Chen, Lu Jia
2013 Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management  
problem. (2) the generic single period -newsvendor model can be used for capturing the critical point, which in tradition model stands for the demarcation point of profit but in this paper is the least  ...  Purpose: This paper focuses on supply chain disruption assessment. Design/methodology/approach: Newsvendor Model.  ...  By virtue of thought of newsvendor model, it is a feasible approach to get the risks assessment on the foundation of an optimal "critical point ratio" weighing against costs, and the target function is  ... 
doi:10.3926/jiem.613 fatcat:kmp3hdmkybf5nomufhylvu4rou

Special issue on dynamics of socioeconomic systems: systemic risk—finance

Philippe de Peretti, Bice Cavallo, Biagio Simonetti, Massimo Squillante, Jorgen Vitting-Andersen
2020 Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications  
Fiori et al. build a model to capture systemic risk. In particular, they set the focus on the inequalities of wealth and income, using the well-known Gini coefficient.  ...  The DySES conference, which took place at the Sorbonne in 2018, gave the unique opportunity to present the state of the art in the complexity field and in many areas including the socioeconomic ones.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00500-020-04983-9 fatcat:33vl674cpbgindv5d4slvogmbe

The 2001 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards: Implications for MSW Programs

Marion Wagner, Paul Newcomb, Robert Weiler
2001 Advances in Social Work  
In this article, the authors discuss implications of the EPAS for masters' level social work educational programs.  ...  The 2001 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) establish guidelines for baccalaureate and masters' level social work education throughout the United States.  ...  We must prepare for-and we can ascend to-the challenge of becoming what our students, clients, and stakeholders need us to be. We believe that the 2001 EPAS provides just such an opportunity.  ... 
doi:10.18060/11 fatcat:q5uevkuzsva3lgxqseazj7f5ci

Addressing the growing burden of non–communicable disease by leveraging lessons from infectious disease management

Peter Piot, Aya Caldwell, Peter Lamptey, Moffat Nyrirenda, Sunil Mehra, Kathy Cahill, Ann Aerts
2016 Journal of Global Health  
The Novartis Foundation provided no funding support to the non-Novartis Foundation authors for the preparation of the article and did not influence the content of the article. Two of the authors Dr.  ...  Peter Lamptey receives support from the Novartis Foundation for the Community based control of Hypertension Improvement Project (Com-HIP) and is the Principal Investigator for the evaluation of the programme  ...  unique opportunity to learn from the successes of infectious disease control programmes in LMICs and leverage these to address the growing NCD burden.  ... 
doi:10.7189/jogh.06.010304 pmid:26955469 pmcid:PMC4766788 fatcat:bqgetzpqxnbwdj4dykcvcogyka

Construction item pricing for more profit and less risk

Matt Stevens
2012 Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building  
Secondly, mathematical models which reflect all those factors and their relative effect on the business situation. Thirdly, computer software that calculates the model.  ...  He captures the basic premise that faces all construction organizations, "maximising profit while minimising risk." It is well explained and structured in the pricing model he proposes.  ...  Secondly, mathematical models which reflect all those factors and their relative effect on the business situation. Thirdly, computer software that calculates the model.  ... 
doi:10.5130/ajceb.v12i3.2743 fatcat:mgxh6ulm4vhgvbjnw5aiifpade

Bioecological Theory and Risk Management

Charl Vince Porlares, Emily Tan
2021 International journal for innovation education and research  
Furthermore, the researchers link the permeation of the direct and indirect effects of risks in the school system by reflecting on the layers of the school's bioecological nest as adapted from the Bioecological  ...  This paper explores the concept of risk management and risks planning through the lens of school management and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle.  ...  with proximal frames of risks, (3) in understanding the discourse of risk planning and management in view of proximal frames of risks and systems limits, and (4) in the improvement of the model presented  ... 
doi:10.31686/ijier.vol9.iss3.2995 fatcat:jffwmnxs2bbzpecuvvvxzietua

Reply to Swartz et al.: Challenges and opportunities for identifying forced labor using satellite-based fishing vessel monitoring

Gavin G. McDonald, Christopher Costello, Jennifer Bone, Reniel B. Cabral, Valerie Farabee, Timothy Hochberg, David Kroodsma, Tracey Mangin, Kyle C. Meng, Oliver Zahn
2021 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
While we acknowledge the limitations of our approach, it lays the foundation for new opportunities to improve fisher working conditions.  ...  We used the term "high risk" for vessels classified as positive by the model for being above the threshold that maximizes a modified F1 score (7).  ...  While we acknowledge the limitations of our approach, it lays the foundation for new opportunities to improve fisher working conditions.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.2104563118 pmid:33941682 pmcid:PMC8126774 fatcat:lnqvp5wkq5hh5fi5gqya7t26dm

Rethinking the nonprofit foundation: an emerging niche in the rare disease ecosystem

Annette C Bakker, Salvatore La Rosa
2017 EMBO Molecular Medicine  
PLoS ONE 12: e0178639  ...  J Clin Invest 123: 340 -347 Monaco L, Faccio L (2017) Patient-driven search for rare disease therapies: the Telethon success story and the strategy leading to Strimvelis.  ...  The CTF has therefore decided to focus on two main opportunities: First, it has developed a new business model that allows our partners from the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to substantially  ... 
doi:10.15252/emmm.201708203 pmid:28743783 pmcid:PMC5582408 fatcat:4ckrxsoqvfc3dezjqkb62icbrm

Training doctors in perioperative medicine for older people undergoing surgery (POPS): an innovative foundation placement

Sarah Barber, Edward Singleton, Judith SL Partridge, Jugdeep K Dhesi
2019 Clinical medicine (London)  
One model of care advocated by this initiative involves the use of comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimisation (CGA) methodology employed through multidisciplinary, interspecialty perioperative  ...  Training doctors in POPS I now see that discussing risk is more than a tick box exercise; it is an opportunity to face realities and for the patient to be able to make truly informed decisions.  ... 
doi:10.7861/clinmed.2019-0256 pmid:31732586 pmcid:PMC6899244 fatcat:cba3mapznfbppleazuho4pbpde

A 2 × 2 Conceptual Foundation for Entrepreneurial Discovery Theory

Patrick J. Murphy
2010 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice  
This extension yields a 2 ¥ 2 conceptual foundation for entrepreneurial discovery theory that promotes the development and coordination of distinct theoretic streams.  ...  However, the dominant conceptual foundation underlying such theories hinders their development. It assumes that opportunities form based on either deliberate search or serendipitous discovery.  ...  Opportunities derive from deliberate search when it is not appropriate to rely on luck or chance because of costly downside risks.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00368.x fatcat:rkvh4dzfb5czrde2ubpgwnhc5u

Simulation as Implementation of Digital Approach to Decision-Making under Uncertainty and Risk

O.V. Tiutyk, M.E. Butakova, V. Mantulenko
2019 SHS Web of Conferences  
The aim of research is the development of the new "digital" approach to the process of reducing uncertainty when decision making in highly risk projects, including the process model and toolkit.  ...  The contribution into the existing knowledge includes substantiating the correlation of the terms of the digital decision-making and simulation modeling tools in high-risk projects management under insufficient  ...  focusing on formalization; -to consider DWH as the key infrastructural foundation for digitalization at the micro-level providing the management with broad opportunities for simulation modeling under  ... 
doi:10.1051/shsconf/20196211004 fatcat:lfgmuydyajb5xf6x6r5q6s6x64

The Philanthropy As One Big Impact Investment: A Framework For Evaluating A Foundation's Blended Performance

Rohit T. Aggarwala, Claudine A. Frasch
2017 The Foundation Review  
Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of John Goldstein, Eric Hallstein, and Peter Kelly, who worked on the analysis of the impact investments as part of a team from Imprint  ...  Capital Advisors, now part of Goldman Sachs Asset Management.  ...  for the risk that circumstances might change and the risk that our managers might fail to deliver on their plans.  ... 
doi:10.9707/1944-5660.1370 fatcat:3iydyra6zvawfk3akeixph7ale
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