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On the Morality of Artificial Agents

Luciano Floridi, J.W. Sanders
2004 Minds and Machines  
Artificial agents, particularly those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in a moral situation.  ...  What would be the consequences of our approach for artificial moral agents?  ...  Insisting on the necessarily human-based nature of the agent means undermining the possibility of understanding another major transformation in the ethical field, the appearance of artificial agents (AAs  ... 
doi:10.1023/b:mind.0000035461.63578.9d fatcat:zjjrr6a2bjf4na4jqx2yqlb3ma

On the Moral Equality of Artificial Agents

Christopher Wareham
2011 International Journal of Technoethics  
Some of this interest is focussed on the types of moral rules artificial agents should have 3 and how these rules could be acquired. 4 Theorists have also discussed the moral status of artificial agents  ...  Inevitably their increased social importance has generated Christopher Wareham European School of Molecular Medicine, Italy & The University of Milan, Italy On the Moral Equality of Artificial Agents  ... 
doi:10.4018/ijt.2011010103 fatcat:kkqmfoyk4fd2xdzh66uaczs6jq

Classifying the Autonomy and Morality of Artificial Agents

Sjur K. Dyrkolbotn, Truls Pedersen, Marija Slavkovik
2017 Pacific Rim International Conference on Multi-Agents  
There is also an ongoing discussion on whether artificial agents can ever be liable for their actions or become moral agents.  ...  As we outsource more of our decisions and activities to machines with various degrees of autonomy, the question of clarifying the moral and legal status of their autonomous behaviour arises.  ...  Arnold and Scheutz [5] , on the other hand, argue against the usefulness of Moral Turing Tests in determining moral competency in artificial agents.  ... 
dblp:conf/prima/DyrkolbotnPS17 fatcat:vwbic3gjsnhwvnr5ryvdgnuh2e

Do androids dream of normative endorsement? On the fallibility of artificial moral agents

Frodo Podschwadek
2017 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
Some authors have even claimed that one of the aims of AI development should be to build morally praiseworthy agents.  ...  Artificial agents capable of endorsing moral rule systems in this way are certainly conceivable.  ...  Whether or not he is right on this, though, does not change what I want to say about the morality of artificial agents in a context of practical social morality.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10506-017-9209-6 fatcat:pcaxgrhpvffohayec7t3iefybi

Virtual moral agency, virtual moral responsibility: on the moral significance of the appearance, perception, and performance of artificial agents

Mark Coeckelbergh
2009 AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence  
I already discussed two alternatives that focus on the 'morality' of artefacts. But what about artificial agents?  ...  Consider again how standard moral theory tries to tackle the problem of responsibility of artificial agents.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00146-009-0208-3 fatcat:lqug55gf7fd77lpkutmrxbkpsa

The Need for Moral Competency in Autonomous Agent Architectures [chapter]

Matthias Scheutz
2016 Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence  
Artificial intelligence and robotics are rapidly advancing in their quest to build truly autonomous agents.  ...  In this chapter, I will make the plea for developing moral capabilities deeply integrated into the control architectures of such autonomous agents, following previous such appeals (e.g., Wallach and Allen  ...  daily life can be turned into a morally charged decision-making situation, where the artificial agent finds itself presented with a moral dilemma where any choice of action (if inaction) can potentially  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26485-1_30 dblp:conf/ptai/Scheutz13 fatcat:czraoowzmvetrpffsqcy7sniay

Towards Simulated Morality Systems: Role-Playing Games as Artificial Societies

Joan Casas-Roma, Mark Nelson, Joan Arnedo-Moreno, Swen Gaudl, Rob Saunders
2019 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence  
Games with a larger amount of social simulation have clear affinities to multi-agent systems (MAS) research on artificial societies.  ...  We illustrate some possible approaches using a case study of the morality systems in the game The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is funded by EC FP7 grant 621403 (ERA Chair: Games Research Opportunities) and the Spanish Government through projects CO-PRIVACY (TIN2011-27076-C03-02) and SMART-GLACIS (TIN2014  ... 
doi:10.5220/0007496702440251 dblp:conf/icaart/Casas-RomaNAGS19 fatcat:miq7hy35krab5po6dnkn6tth74

On the Morality of Artificial Agents [chapter]

Luciano Floridi, Michael Anderson, Susan Leigh Anderson
Machine Ethics  
Artificial agents, particularly those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in a moral situation.  ...  What would be the consequences of our approach for artificial moral agents?  ...  Insisting on the necessarily human-based nature of the agent means undermining the possibility of understanding another major transformation in the ethical field, the appearance of artificial agents (AAs  ... 
doi:10.1017/cbo9780511978036.016 fatcat:h64azq6uv5cozawiwqouwamowm

Distributed responsibility in human–machine interactions

Anna Strasser
2021 AI and Ethics  
Thereby, the focus will lay on the evaluation of potential criteria referring to the fact that artificial agents surpass in some aspects the capacities of humans.  ...  Besides positions denying the mere possibility of attributing moral responsibility to artificial systems, recent approaches discuss the circumstances under which artificial agents may qualify as moral  ...  Responsibility on the side of artificial agents Specifying the conditions for moral agency plays a crucial role in the debates about responsibility, even though qualifying as a moral agent is not always  ... 
doi:10.1007/s43681-021-00109-5 fatcat:ueiqdmqrgbapvckfccpbywwsru

Artificial Beings Worthy of Moral Consideration in Virtual Environments: An Analysis of Ethical Viability

Stefano Gualeni
2020 Journal of Virtual Worlds Research  
Adopting this framework, the article tackles the question of whether including artificial intelligences that are entitled to moral consideration in virtual environments constitutes an immoral action on  ...  To address this problem, the article draws on three conceptual lenses from the philosophical branch of ethics: the problem of parenthood and procreation, the question concerning the moral status of animals  ...  In a later essay ('On the morality of artificial agents'), Floridi and Sanders (2004) do discuss the possibility of artificial intelligences being entitled to ethical consideration; however, this discussion  ... 
doi:10.4101/jvwr.v13i1.7369 fatcat:37annypsh5dknd73apk4fmpvta

A Case for Machine Ethics in Modeling Human-Level Intelligent Agents

Robert James Boyles
2018 Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy  
To somehow ensure this, a number of artificial intelligence researchers have opted to focus on the development of artificial moral agents, which refers to machines capable of moral reasoning, judgment,  ...  With the body of work that they have contributed in the study of moral agency, philosophers may contribute to the growing literature on artificial moral agency.  ...  Several philosophers have already put forward their own take on the nature of moral agents.  ... 
doi:10.25138/12.1.a9 fatcat:5me2lv3bizg33la4h3t4xdbcoe

Artificial Morality: Top-down, Bottom-up, and Hybrid Approaches

Colin Allen, Iva Smit, Wendell Wallach
2005 Ethics and Information Technology  
A principal goal of the discipline of artificial morality is to design artificial agents to act as if they are moral agents.  ...  The development of an effective foundation for the field of artificial morality involves exploring the technological and philosophical issues involved in making computers into explicit moral reasoners.  ...  Evaluating machine morality As we stated above, the goal of the discipline of artificial morality is to design artificial agents to act as if they are moral agents.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10676-006-0004-4 fatcat:f34briab4bh4rjzoks6ka7hq5e

Artificial agency, consciousness, and the criteria for moral agency: what properties must an artificial agent have to be a moral agent?

Kenneth Einar Himma
2008 Ethics and Information Technology  
I ultimately conclude that the issue of whether artificial moral agency is possible depends on the issue of whether it is possible for ICTs to be conscious.  ...  In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency  ...  Introduction A spate of papers has recently appeared on the possibility of artificial agency and artificial moral agency, raising substantive questions of whether it is possible to produce artificial agents  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10676-008-9167-5 fatcat:xvbo3nthvnhg5kekryxasfxkhy

Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent?

Kenneth Einar Himma
2007 Social Science Research Network  
I ultimately conclude that the issue of whether artificial moral agency is possible depends on the issue of whether it is possible for ICTs to be conscious.  ...  In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency  ...  Introduction A spate of papers has recently appeared on the possibility of artificial agency and artificial moral agency, raising substantive questions of whether it is possible to produce artificial agents  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.983503 fatcat:szwlvoigonc4xfwzh4jp3mye2q

Robots: ethical by design

Gordana Dodig Crnkovic, Baran Çürüklü
2011 Ethics and Information Technology  
on the type of agent.  ...  In the same way that the concept of agency is generalized in the case of artificial agents, the concept of moral agency, including responsibility, is generalized too.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors want to thank Mark Coeckelbergh for the enlightening discussion of several ideas central to this paperdistributed responsibility, artifactual morality and the role of emotional  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10676-011-9278-2 fatcat:ktpdnlrh4ncnhf75qa4lccasta
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