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On the formalization of programming languages: Early history and main approaches [chapter]

Peter Lucas
1978 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A computer system accomplishes its tasks on the basis of a prescription of these tasks, i.e. on the basis of a program expressed in some programming language.  ...  If we extend the notion of programming language to include query languages and database languages we may observe a tendency in the indicated direction. Yet, there is a gap.  ...  We may start the history of formal definition methods for programming languages with the year 1959 when J.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-08766-4_8 fatcat:mx676jusxzewpo4ayj55rppi74

Clef Design - Thoughts on the Formalization of Program Construction

Klaas Van Schelven
2018 Zenodo  
In this paper the associated questions of Programming Language Design are explored.  ...  This novel approach yields structured historic information at arbitrary levels of program granularity across the programming toolchain.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Wouter Swierstra and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments that greatly contributed to improving the final version of the paper.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3263959 fatcat:j6j6ov3clraxhde5tpxhhcusyq

Formal certification of code-based cryptographic proofs

Gilles Barthe, Benjamin Grégoire, Santiago Zanella Béguelin
2008 Proceedings of the 36th annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages - POPL '09  
Code-based techniques form an instance of this approach that takes a code-centric view of games, and that relies on programming language theory to justify proof steps.  ...  CertiCrypt is built upon the general-purpose proof assistant Coq, and draws on many areas, including probability, complexity, algebra, and semantics of programming languages.  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge Romain Janvier and Federico Olmedo for their enthusiastic participation in the project, Christine Paulin for the support provided in using her library, and  ... 
doi:10.1145/1480881.1480894 dblp:conf/popl/BartheGB09 fatcat:wy6for6qsbg4vobvhsfgfnirsq

Formally verified speculation and deoptimization in a JIT compiler

Aurèle Barrière, Sandrine Blazy, Olivier Flückiger, David Pichardie, Jan Vitek
2021 Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages (PACMPL)  
Just-in-time compilers for dynamic languages routinely generate code under assumptions that may be invalidated at run-time, this allows for specialization of program code to the common case in order to  ...  While our work stops short of proving native code generation, we demonstrate how one could use the verified optimization to obtain significant speed ups in an end-to-end setting.  ...  The correctness proof of a compiler pass from language 1 to language 2 relies on a backward simulation diagram shown in Figure 7 and expressed in the following theorem.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3434327 fatcat:uf7jy646mvg5zk2kmozutrjyla

Modular, compositional, and executable formal semantics for LLVM IR

Yannick Zakowski, Calvin Beck, Irene Yoon, Ilia Zaichuk, Vadim Zaliva, Steve Zdancewic
2021 Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages (PACMPL)  
We validate the correctness of the semantics by evaluating it on unit tests and LLVM IR programs generated by HELIX.  ...  Our semantics handles many of the LLVM IR's non-trivial language features and is constructed modularly in terms of event handlers, including those that deal with nondeterminism in the specification.  ...  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the ONR.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3473572 fatcat:xcamtmqtz5h2hov5wrzntjmwrm

Automating formal proofs for reactive systems

Daniel Ricketts, Valentin Robert, Dongseok Jang, Zachary Tatlock, Sorin Lerner
2013 Proceedings of the 35th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation - PLDI '14  
the constrained language of both programs and properties to enable fully automatic, pushbutton verification.  ...  A crucial insight of our approach is simultaneously designing both (1) a domain-specific language (DSL) for expressing reactive systems and their correctness properties and (2) proof automation which exploits  ...  This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grants 0964702, 1228967 and 1219172, and a generous gift from Google.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2594291.2594338 dblp:conf/pldi/RickettsRJTL14 fatcat:63gucx7hnnd75fcjlcf5ktfegq

Formal online methods for voltage/frequency control in multiple clock domain microprocessors

Qiang Wu, Philo Juang, Margaret Martonosi, Douglas W. Clark
2004 Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Architectural support for programming languages and operating systems - ASPLOS-XI  
In this paper, we present an effective online DVFS scheme for an MCD processor which takes a formal analytic approach, is driven by dynamic workloads, and is suitable for all applications.  ...  In our approach, we model an MCD processor as a queue-domain network and the online DVFS as a feedback control problem with issue queue occupancies as feedback signals.  ...  suggestions on the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1024393.1024423 dblp:conf/asplos/WuJMC04 fatcat:mb7uqr5pz5gm3gl3ysz6c2nkza

Introducing Formal Methods via Program Derivation

Dipak L. Chaudhari, Om Damani
2015 Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education - ITiCSE '15  
Based on our learning from multiple years of paper and pencil based teaching, we have developed a programming assistant tool that addresses several of the issues faced by the students in the manual program  ...  Existing attempts towards including formal methods in introductory programming courses focus on introducing program verification tools.  ...  The work of the first author was supported by the Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) Research Fellowship and a grant from the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2729094.2742628 dblp:conf/iticse/ChaudhariD15 fatcat:tjuacgzgq5abbbmtnxcudnjkzq

Formalizing and verifying semantic type soundness of a simple compiler

Nick Benton, Uri Zarfaty
2007 Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Principles and practice of declarative programming - PPDP '07  
Types in the high-level language are interpreted as binary relations, built using both second-order quantification and a form of separation structure, over stores and code pointers in the lowlevel machine  ...  We describe a semantic type soundness result, formalized in the Coq proof assistant, for a compiler from a simple imperative language with heap-allocated data into an idealized assembly language.  ...  For high-level languages, there are two main approaches to formalizing type soundness properties: syntactic and semantic.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1273920.1273922 dblp:conf/ppdp/BentonZ07 fatcat:7cjcwvk3dzafrcnoqrtz7g3ryi

Planning for change in a formal verification of the raft consensus protocol

Doug Woos, James R. Wilcox, Steve Anton, Zachary Tatlock, Michael D. Ernst, Thomas Anderson
2016 Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Certified Programs and Proofs - CPP 2016  
We present the first formal verification of state machine safety for the Raft consensus protocol, a critical component of many distributed systems.  ...  The primary challenge we faced during the verification process was proof maintenance, since proving one invariant often required strengthening and updating other parts of our proof.  ...  Each of these is established as a separate invariant by induction on the execution. This result was formalized and proved as part of our work on verified system transformers [39] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2854065.2854081 dblp:conf/cpp/WoosWATEA16 fatcat:76ddfebqyng4zm64bzoyhhugzq

Modeling time in Java programs for automatic error detection

Giovanni Liva, Muhammad Taimoor Khan, Francesco Spegni, Luca Spalazzi, Andreas Bollin, Martin Pinzger
2018 Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Formal Methods in Software Engineering - FormaliSE '18  
The solver formally verifies the correctness of the model and reports the violations of time properties in that program.  ...  In this paper, we present an approach that considers the time semantics of the Java language to systematically detect time related errors in Java programs.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research is funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG within the FFG Bridge 1 program, grant no. 850757.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3193992.3193997 dblp:conf/icse/LivaKSSB018 fatcat:5dgb4jcirbf2disyroipivw4sa

Ideal Language

Steven Laporte
2018 Knowledge organization  
He holds master's degrees in moral sciences (University of Ghent), logic and the philosophy of science (VUB), arts and culture management and library and information science (University of Antwerp).  ...  His research interests include epistemology, knowledge organisation, the dissemination of information literacy and current issues in academic publishing.  ...  Formal concept analysis Formal concept analysis (FCA) was formulated in the early 1980s by Rudolf Wille and can be considered a development of lattice theory (Wille 2009) .  ... 
doi:10.5771/0943-7444-2018-7-586 fatcat:wgsnqeztvrbn7dx2vnabjym5xm

Specification Languages [chapter]

Donald Sannella, Martin Wirsing
1999 Algebraic Foundations of Systems Specification  
ACT [CEW93] is an approach to formal software development that includes a language called ACT ONE [Cla89] for writing parameterised specifications, called "types", with conditional equational axioms and  ...  ACT ONE and ACT TWO.  ...  Thanks to Didier Bert, Rȃzvan Diaconescu, Chris George, Bernd Krieg-Brückner, and Horst Reichel for helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-59851-7_8 dblp:series/ifip/SannellaW99 fatcat:ckfem66gzvcuxidwhhd2k4mttm

Early Language Education in Australia [chapter]

Susana A. Eisenchlas, Andrea C. Schalley
2020 Springer International Handbooks of Education  
Using Chua and Baldauf's (2011) model of Language Policy and Planning as the analytical framework, the chapter explores formal and non-formal activities to foster the development of languages in young  ...  programs, usually developed and run by communities, such as supplementary schooling (e.g., Community Language Schools).  ...  Early Childhood Language Program) and non-formal (e.g. au pairs as target language speakers) initiatives towards early language education in Australia.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-47073-9_26-1 fatcat:gww3pdn6w5fbbejbaq26qlpgcm

Language teaching

2007 Language Teaching  
One of the central concerns of English as a Second Language (ESL) education within many Englishspeaking countries has been the relationship between content and language teaching.  ...  the integration of the language and content curriculum.  ...  MOJICA-DIAZ, The effects of formal instruction and study abroad on improving proficiency: The case of the Spanish subjunctive.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0261444806214113 fatcat:23nxg6dzgndbfej5uipnf35obq
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