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Analytical modeling of garbage collection algorithms in hotness-aware flash-based solid state drives

Yue Yang, Jianwen Zhu
2014 2014 30th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
=0 =1 =2 =0 =1 =2 =3 =4 h h h v v v v v Event Worldwide Shipment Forecast for SSDs and HDDs in PCs (Millions of units) of Garbage Collection Algorithms in Hotness-aware Flash-based Solid State Drives 4  ...   Noise MSST'14 Analytical Modeling of Garbage Collection Algorithms in Hotness-aware Flash-based Solid State Drives 5  Endurance limited budget of erase cycles ( 1K -100K ) "erase-before-write  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2014.6855534 dblp:conf/mss/YangZ14 fatcat:nddxsz3wnnbfrgnsv7umypurpu

Garbage Collection Algorithms in Flash-Based Solid State Drives

2020 VOLUME-8 ISSUE-10, AUGUST 2019, REGULAR ISSUE  
This issue is in turn handled by the Garbage Collection (GC) algorithms that are put in place to supply free blocks for serving the writes being made to the flash-based SSDs and thus reduce the need of  ...  The LRU/FIFO, Greedy, Windowed Greedy and D choices algorithms have been described to lower write amplification for incoming writes which are different in nature.  ...  FIFO/LRU Cleaning Algorithm The LRU cleaning algorithm is one of the simplest garbage collection algorithms in SSDs.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijitee.k7819.1091220 fatcat:5wwm57aaljbdrero4kz3mnabsq

A Hybrid Approach to NAND-Flash-Based Solid-State Disks

Li-Pin Chang
2010 IEEE transactions on computers  
The proposed hybrid SSD costs only four percent more than a purely MLC-flash-based SSD. The extra cost of a hybrid SSD is very limited and rewarding.  ...  The experimental results of our study show that combining 256 MB SLC flash with 20 GB MLC flash produces a hybrid SSD.  ...  This paper is an extended version of [14] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.2010.14 fatcat:evneknpcubethapbuazxv3clxu

A closed-form expression for write amplification in NAND Flash

Rajiv Agarwal, Marcus Marrow
2010 2010 IEEE Globecom Workshops  
Write amplification negatively affects the SSD endurance and write throughput. This performance loss depends on the drive overprovisioning and the garbage collection method.  ...  This paper presents a novel probabilistic model to analytically quantify the impact of over-provisioning on write amplification under a uniformly-distributed random workload and a greedy garbage collection  ...  [11] performed a worst-case competitive analysis with focus on endurance-based randomized algorithms. On a different note, Jagmohan et al.  ... 
doi:10.1109/glocomw.2010.5700261 fatcat:s46o2hvkund3lci6dag64x224u

Hybrid solid state drives for improved performance and enhanced lifetime

Yongseok Oh, Eunjae Lee, Jongmoo Choi, Donghee Lee, Sam H. Noh
2013 2013 IEEE 29th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
Experiments with two types of SSDs both based on DiskSim with SSD Extension show that the analytic model approach can dynamically adjust data distribution as workloads evolve to enhance performance or  ...  As the market becomes more competitive, SSD manufacturers are moving from SLC (Single-Level Cell) to MLC (Multi-Level Cell) flash memory chips that store two bits per cell as building blocks for SSDs.  ...  TLC SSD based on the measurement of choice is determined.  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2013.6558425 dblp:conf/mss/OhLCLN13 fatcat:asl5lokzwnbgxmyq4frsc7vjwi

VSSIM: Virtual machine based SSD simulator

Jinsoo Yoo, Youjip Won, Joongwoo Hwang, Sooyong Kang, Jongmoo Choil, Sungroh Yoon, Jaehyuk Cha
2013 2013 IEEE 29th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
VSSIM intends to address the issues of the trace driven simulation, e.g. trace re-scaling, accurate replay, etc. VSSIM operates on top of QE-MU/KVM with software based SSD module.  ...  VSSIM can also facilitate the implementation of the SSD firmware algorithms. To demonstrate the capability of VSSIM, we performed a number of case studies.  ...  FTL, garbage collection algorithm, wear-leveling algorithm and etc. with physical NAND flash chip, which one prefers not to implement if there is a resort.  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2013.6558443 dblp:conf/mss/YooWHKCYC13 fatcat:qe3jfxd7vneb7ctzyi6a6kza4m

Performance impact and interplay of SSD parallelism through advanced commands, allocation strategy and data granularity

Yang Hu, Hong Jiang, Dan Feng, Lei Tian, Hao Luo, Shuping Zhang
2011 Proceedings of the international conference on Supercomputing - ICS '11  
for the purpose of performance and endurance enhancement of SSDs.  ...  With the development of the NAND-Flash technology, NAND-Flash based Solid-State Disk (SSD) has been attracting a great deal of attention from both industry and academia.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This  ... 
doi:10.1145/1995896.1995912 dblp:conf/ics/HuJFTLZ11 fatcat:vgv4l3q6rjeqzl5afagqpigudq

Performance Evaluation of Flash SSDs in a Transaction Processing System

Yongkun WANG, Kazuo GODA, Miyuki NAKANO, Masaru KITSUREGAWA
2011 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
Since existent storage subsystems are designed on the basis of characteristics of hard disks, the IO performance of flash SSDs may not be obtained as expected.  ...  However, the IO characteristics of flash SSDs are very different from those of hard disks.  ...  For the garbage collection of LFS, an adaptive method based on usage patterns is proposed in [24] .  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e94.d.602 fatcat:rgi2pwc7nvg4fd57ehxtx6vqwq

WAFTL: A workload adaptive flash translation layer with data partition

Qingsong Wei, Bozhao Gong, Suraj Pathak, Bharadwaj Veeravalli, LingFang Zeng, Kanzo Okada
2011 2011 IEEE 27th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
PMB or BMB is allocated on demand and the number of PMB or BMB eventually depends on workload.  ...  WAFTL explores a small part of flash space as Buffer Zone to log writes sequentially and migrate data into BMB or PMB based on threshold.  ...  WAFTL set a garbage collection threshold for the whole SSD space: percentage of free blocks (20% is used in our experiment).  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2011.5937217 dblp:conf/mss/WeiGPVZO11 fatcat:pfzbfnyevbgn5bz4azbu77vmk4

Performance Evaluation of Dynamic Page Allocation Strategies in SSDs

Arash Tavakkol, Pooyan Mehrvarzy, Mohammad Arjomand, Hamid Sarbazi-Azad
2016 ACM Transactions on Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computing Systems  
Specifically, using steady-state analysis of SSDs, we show that dynamism helps to mitigate performance and endurance overheads of garbage collection.  ...  Proposals already exist for using static logical-to-physical address mapping that does not balance the I/O traffic load within the SSD, and its efficiency highly depends on access patterns.  ...  When evaluating an SSD, garbage collection (GC) plays an important role.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2829974 fatcat:3xf5nou7u5dcvesl6ozq4tvhky

Rejuvenator: A static wear leveling algorithm for NAND flash memory with minimized overhead

Muthukumar Murugan, David.H.C. Du
2011 2011 IEEE 27th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
The existing wear leveling algorithms do not scale for large scale NAND flash based SSDs.  ...  However the endurance of flash memory is still a critical issue in using it for large scale enterprise applications.  ...  This work was carried out in part using computing resources at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2011.5937225 dblp:conf/mss/MuruganD11 fatcat:fv7n6qz3njdmvcosq6u5wmqbdu

Errors in Flash-Memory-Based Solid-State Drives: Analysis, Mitigation, and Recovery [article]

Yu Cai, Saugata Ghose, Erich F. Haratsch, Yixin Luo, Onur Mutlu
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We provide rigorous experimental data from state-of-the-art MLC and TLC NAND flash devices on various types of flash memory errors, to motivate the need for such techniques.  ...  Based on the understanding developed by the experimental characterization, we describe several mitigation and recovery techniques, including (1) cell-tocell interference mitigation; (2) optimal multi-level  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Rino Micheloni for his helpful feedback on earlier drafts of the paper. They would also like to thank Seagate for their continued dedicated support.  ... 
arXiv:1711.11427v2 fatcat:rvnbeg4eevfa7lczf2h2ificxi

ZombieNAND: Resurrecting Dead NAND Flash for Improved SSD Longevity

Ellis H. Wilson, Myoungsoo Jung, Mahmut T. Kandemir
2014 2014 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on Modelling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems  
As consumer pressure for more bits per dollar and higher density-per-solid-state disk (SSD) forces manufacturers to squeeze more than one bit per flash cell and feature sizes downwards, wear-out is again  ...  However, one lesser known facet of NAND flash design is that there is no material difference between cells that store one, two, or three bits per cell -it is merely a logical interpretation of the cells  ...  The Basics of Wear-Leveling Modern SSDs tout all forms of complex garbage-collection and wear-leveling algorithms to assure the cells within wear-down at roughly the same rate throughout the many planes  ... 
doi:10.1109/mascots.2014.37 dblp:conf/mascots/WilsonJK14 fatcat:vspqybfvufaozpxxdujdpxtujm

What is the future of disk drives, death or rebirth?

Yuhui Deng
2011 ACM Computing Surveys  
Fourthly, it introduces some new storage media types and the impacts they have on the architecture of the traditional disk drives.  ...  Furthermore, energy efficiency has become one of the most important challenges in designing disk drive storage systems.  ...  Jose Martinez and the editors of ACM Computing Surveys for giving me the opportunity to clarify my thoughts. This work was funded in part by a startup research fund from Jinan University.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1922649.1922660 fatcat:zz3kcy54gfh4zj2oauq455ozxq

Architectural Techniques for Improving NAND Flash Memory Reliability [article]

Yixin Luo
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Raw bit errors are common in NAND flash memory and will increase in the future. These errors reduce flash reliability and limit the lifetime of a flash memory device.  ...  and write-cold data. (2) We propose a new framework that learns an online flash channel model for each chip and enables four new flash controller algorithms to improve flash reliability by up to 69.9%  ...  on garbage collection).  ... 
arXiv:1808.04016v1 fatcat:fotned4yajc2xmaoezwjdrgypu
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