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The cost of unintended pregnancies for employer-sponsored health insurance plans

Gabriela Dieguez, Bruce S Pyenson, Amy W Law, Richard Lynen, James Trussell
2015 American health & drug benefits  
The primary objective of this study was to update the cost of unintended pregnancy to employer-sponsored health insurance plans with current data.  ...  These unintended pregnancies account for 27.4% of the annual delivery costs to employers in the United States, or approximately 1% of the typical employer's health benefits spending for 1 year.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health  ... 
pmid:26005515 pmcid:PMC4437481 fatcat:qfgivc5hdjgpbnp3tag4m6az7y

A PRAM and NAND flash hybrid architecture for high-performance embedded storage subsystems

Jin Kyu Kim, Hyung Gyu Lee, Shinho Choi, Kyoung Il Bahng
2008 Proceedings of the 7th ACM international conference on Embedded software - EMSOFT '08  
In this paper, we focus on developing a high-performance NAND flash-based storage system by maximally exploiting the advanced feature of PRAM, in terms of performance and wearing out.  ...  NAND flash-based storage is widely used in embedded systems due to its numerous benefits: low cost, high density, small form factor and so on.  ...  FSMS: File system metadata on PRAM We design FSMS, which stores metadata of file system on PRAM as shown in Figure 4 (b).  ... 
doi:10.1145/1450058.1450064 dblp:conf/emsoft/KimLCB08 fatcat:tkh57wwfprexlm5owj5tu5cpmm

Infant Delivery Costs Related to Maternal Smoking: An Update

E. K. Adams, C. L. Melvin, C. Raskind-Hood, P. J. Joski, E. Galactionova
2011 Nicotine & Tobacco Research  
Acknowledgments The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation or CDC.  ...  We also found a lower effect of smoking on the percentage of infants born low birth weight in earlier work using PRAMS data and propensity scoring (unpublished).  ...  The three steps used in deriving the current estimates are (a) fitting multivariate regression models on the more current PRAMS data, (b) deriving updated measures of the costs of infant nights in the  ... 
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr042 pmid:21778148 fatcat:eucj6zhw65g7haib7oi4rchtpu

A multicriteria resource allocation model for the redesign of services following birth

John Bowers, Helen Cheyne, Gillian Mould, Martin Miller, Miranda Page, Fiona Harris, Debra Bick
2018 BMC Health Services Research  
The initial phase of the study focussed on mapping postnatal care, involving interviews and workshops with a variety of stakeholders.  ...  The Postnatal care Resource Allocation Model incorporated this approach in a decision support tool to analyse the consequences of varying design parameters, notably staff contacts and time, on the various  ...  However, they had no role in the writing of this paper which just represents the views of the authors.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12913-018-3430-1 pmid:30134882 pmcid:PMC6106921 fatcat:sbtutdruz5crnb4q6v4wjjudbm

Content-aware write reduction mechanism of phase-change RAM based Frame Store in H.264 Video codec system

Sanchuan Guo, Zhenyu Liu, Guohong Li, Dongsheng Wang
2013 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS2013)  
The upto-date Phase-change Random Access Memory (PRAM) is the promising approach for on-chip caching the reference signals, as PRAM offers the advantages in terms of high density and low leakage power.  ...  The power consumption is reduced by 55% on average, and the estimated PRAM lifetime is extended by 61%.  ...  On average, when a = 1, the bit updates are reduced by 33.8% over the baseline system, which shows the mechanism is very effective in reducing writes to PRAM FS.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iscas.2013.6571835 dblp:conf/iscas/GuoLLW13 fatcat:6gfcllrernbj5kyoawdnhvsie4

Implementation Science and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System

Violanda I. Grigorescu, Denise V. D'Angelo, Leslie L. Harrison, Aspy J. Taraporewalla, Holly Shulman, Ruben A. Smith
2014 Journal of Women's Health  
With the ultimate goal to better inform health care providers, public health programs, and policy, changes were made to various aspects of PRAMS to enhance its capacity on assessing and monitoring public  ...  This paper describes the restructuring of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), a surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Reproductive  ...  Acknowledgments The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  ... 
doi:10.1089/jwh.2014.5047 pmid:25405525 pmcid:PMC4267766 fatcat:tpoinlcvuvgelfoylwujdolpje

A Parallel Random Access Machine (PRAM) Model for English Language Recognizer (PRAM-ELR)

Madiha KhurramPasha, Maryam Feroze, Khurram Ahmad Pasha
2015 International Journal of Computer Applications  
computing technology (parallelism) is the main building block of this era of development and, for this purpose, therefore, all aspects have been thought about to meet the need of time.  ...  As, technology grows day by day ,computers become ever faster with its importance and having maximum computing power, computational cost also increases, development at its high end then we state that parallel  ...  The complexity of PRAM can be calculated as: Run No of processors = P(n) Cost= C(n) = T(n) * P(n) The PRAM model can used sequential algorithm in a parallel manner.  ... 
doi:10.5120/20749-3139 fatcat:2lfuvpnnx5cjnkdkguz5koyqke

The effectiveness of a pram-walking exercise programme in reducing depressive symptomatology for postnatal women

Kylie Armstrong, Helen Edwards
2004 International Journal of Nursing Practice  
The purpose of the research project was to examine the effects of exercise, social support and depression on postnatal women who reported experiencing Postnatal Depression (PND).  ...  The primary outcomes were to reduce the depressive syptomatology and improve fitness levels of participants in the pram walking group.  ...  To the mothers who volunteered for the study. Without their participation this important research would not be possible.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1440-172x.2004.00478.x pmid:15265228 fatcat:2an4ky7c6jfgresahz5dutbdcm

Characterising Effective Resource Analyses for Parallel and Distributed Coordination [chapter]

Phil Trinder, Murray Cole, Hans-Wolfgang Loidl, Greg Michaelson
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We consider six representative parallel/distributed applications of resource analysis techniques, and aim to extract general principles governing why the combination of techniques is effective in its context  ...  Given the spectrum of cost models and associated analysis techniques available, what combination should be selected for a specific parallel or distributed context? We address the question as follows.  ...  Section 2 classifies coordination cost models, focusing on the level of abstraction over the hardware that is provided. The PRAM model is extremely simple and abstract.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15331-0_5 fatcat:v3nemcm36vcyfg4ms2igfeauna

Parallelism Always Helps

Louis Mak
1997 SIAM journal on computing (Print)  
The proof is constructive; thus it gives a mechanical way to translate any sequential algorithm designed to run on a unit-cost RAM into a parallel algorithm that runs on a CREW PRAM and obtain a nearly  ...  It is shown that every unit-cost random-access machine (RAM) that runs in time T can be simulated by a concurrent-read exclusive-write parallel random-access machine (CREW PRAM) in time O(T 1/2 log T )  ...  His extensive comments significantly improved the disposition of this paper. Also, I would like to thank Professor Larry Ruzzo for bringing to my attention the work of Reif.  ... 
doi:10.1137/s0097539794265402 fatcat:ko5y2bdq3nbwbh7zyidsjht3mq

Memorage

Ju-Young Jung, Sangyeun Cho
2013 Proceedings of the 27th international ACM conference on International conference on supercomputing - ICS '13  
Moreover, Memorage is shown to extend the lifetime of the PRAM main memory by 3.9 or 6.9 times on a system with 8 GB PRAM main memory and a 240 GB or 480 GB PRAM storage.  ...  We design and implement a prototype system in the Linux OS to study the effectiveness of Memorage.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by the US NSF grants: CCF-1064976 and CNS-1012070.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2464996.2465005 dblp:conf/ics/JungC13 fatcat:x7dqktrnz5hgni54ecf6rdauja

The effect of cigarette excise taxes on smoking before, during and after pregnancy

Greg Colman, Michael Grossman, Ted Joyce
2003 Journal of Health Economics  
We find that the price elasticity of prenatal quitting and postpartum relapse is close to one in absolute value.  ...  It is unclear, however, whether the association between taxes and prenatal smoking represents a decline among women of reproductive age or a particular response by pregnant women.  ...  Murphy, and participants from the NBER Summer Institute for comments and the PRAMS Working Group and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and in particular, Mary Rogers, Christopher Johnson  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2003.06.003 pmid:14604560 fatcat:i63hdvub3fdehm6n77guex2rl4

A read-while-write-based out-of-order scheduling for high performance NAND flash-based storage devices

Jin-Young Kim, Sang-Hoon Park, Hyeokjun Seo, Taehee You, Eui-Young Chung
2014 The 18th IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE 2014)  
In the experiment result, the proposed method reduces read and write latency on average by 30% and 19%, respectively.  ...  However, in spite of many advantages over DRAM, asymmetric write/read speed of PRAM causes performance degradation in NFSD.  ...  However, the use of DRAM has become a burden to NFSDs due to its cost and volatility.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isce.2014.6884314 fatcat:vsuz4sjfszad5io3mdg6qeb6bm

A PRAM based block updating management for hybrid solid state disk

Ning Lu, In-Sung Choi, So-Hyang Ko, Shin-Dug Kim
2012 IEICE Electronics Express  
The goal of this research is to design a PRAM-based SSD (solid state disk) updating management scheme which uses PRAM for main logging area of previous hybrid SSDs.  ...  Simulation results show that overall write performance can be enhanced by around 380% on average and the lifetime of SSD can be increased by up to 6.5 times.  ...  This type of hybrid SSD typically employs a write buffer to reorganize and arrange the incoming data in order for the being flushed data to be sequential, where one of the effective buffer schemes is called  ... 
doi:10.1587/elex.9.320 fatcat:ufe2ui7wfva3bixbktozgutf3e

Use of secondary contraception following vasectomy: insights from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2007–2011

Darshan P. Patel, Letitia Williams, Lee Warner, Mary E. O'Neil, Kenneth Aston, Douglas T. Carrell, Violanda Grigorescu, Denise J. Jamieson, John R. Gannon, Michael L. Eisenberg, Thomas J. Walsh
2018 Translational Andrology and Urology  
relied on less effective methods.  ...  City who participated in the 2007-2011 PRAMS.  ...  With the exception of income, which was selfreported on PRAMS, all variables were obtained from birth certificates.  ... 
doi:10.21037/tau.2018.04.15 pmid:30159231 pmcid:PMC6087841 fatcat:t4mpngf5e5falfn7xoefkanubu
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