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Combining Voting Rules Together [article]

Nina Narodytska, Toby Walsh, Lirong Xia
<span title="2012-03-14">2012</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
For instance, even if just one of the base voting rules has a desirable property like Condorcet consistency, the combination inherits this property.  ...  Finally, we study the impact of this combinator on approximation methods that find close to optimal manipulations.  ...  Computing a manipulation of X is NP-hard.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1203.3051v1">arXiv:1203.3051v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/244hji72b5ahzk2kqecyi76q5q">fatcat:244hji72b5ahzk2kqecyi76q5q</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/download/arxiv-1203.3051/1203.3051.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> File Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1203.3051v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

When are elections with few candidates hard to manipulate?

Vincent Conitzer, Tuomas Sandholm, Jérôme Lang
<span title="2007-06-01">2007</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/r72grtxx6jad5hjzl7fxcunwhi" style="color: black;">Journal of the ACM</a> </i> &nbsp;
rules) become NP-hard, #P-hard, or PSPACE-hard to manipulate, depending on whether the schedule of the preround is determined before the votes are collected, after the votes are collected, or the scheduling  ...  Sandholm [2003] showed that by adding a preround of pairwise elections (where the winner of each pair proceeds to the original voting rule), a broad class of voting rules (including the most common voting  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank all of the reviewers of this paper (including the earlier AAAI and TARK versions). One of the reviewers for this version gave especially detailed comments,  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1236457.1236461">doi:10.1145/1236457.1236461</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/r6du4dabizampje7wrfpyukwbi">fatcat:r6du4dabizampje7wrfpyukwbi</a> </span>
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How Hard Is It to Control an Election by Breaking Ties? [article]

Nicholas Mattei, Nina Narodytska, Toby Walsh
<span title="2014-05-29">2014</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Indeed, we prove that it can be NP-hard to control an election by breaking ties even with a two-stage voting rule.  ...  When the chair of the election is only asked to break ties to choose between one of the co-winners, the problem is trivially easy.  ...  NICTA is funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Communications and the Australian Research Council through the ICT Centre of Excellence Program.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1304.6174v2">arXiv:1304.6174v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6jd355v5ubaklkacnfgnrv6okm">fatcat:6jd355v5ubaklkacnfgnrv6okm</a> </span>
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Computational social choice

Ariel D. Procaccia
<span title="2011-12-01">2011</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jn6xpjqhwjcz3g2fwosq6f2v7y" style="color: black;">XRDS Crossroads The ACM Magazine for Students</a> </i> &nbsp;
Biography Ariel Procaccia is an assistant professor in the Computer Science Department at Carnegie Mellon University.  ...  He received his Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and was subsequently a postdoc at Microsoft and Harvard University.  ...  In the context of manipulation, this means that even though a voting rule is hard to manipulate in the worst case, it may be that voters are almost always able to efficiently compute beneficial manipulations  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2043236.2043249">doi:10.1145/2043236.2043249</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6qvmjjogxjdyzojag4puoh66mm">fatcat:6qvmjjogxjdyzojag4puoh66mm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170810122116/http://procaccia.info/papers/4centuries.xrds.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/53/ae/53aeca185803ae4546cb920e09d689aaa5c060ac.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2043236.2043249"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Complexity of Terminating Preference Elicitation [article]

Toby Walsh
<span title="2009-03-06">2009</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Based on this connection, we identify a voting rule where it is computationally difficult to decide the probability of a candidate winning given a probability distribution over the votes.  ...  We also study the connection between the strategic manipulation of an election and preference elicitation. We show that what we can manipulate affects the computational complexity of manipulation.  ...  Preference Manipulation is NP-hard for a voting rule on weighted votes implies Evaluation with the same rule on unweighted votes is also NP-hard. Proof.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/0903.1137v1">arXiv:0903.1137v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/blb5eesgjfhqvond6f5hxfdevm">fatcat:blb5eesgjfhqvond6f5hxfdevm</a> </span>
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Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information [article]

Vincent Conitzer and Toby Walsh and Lirong Xia
<span title="2011-06-27">2011</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
When the manipulator's information is represented by partial orders and only a small portion of the preferences are unknown, computing a dominating manipulation is NP-hard for many common voting rules.  ...  When the manipulator has full information, computing whether or not there exists a dominating manipulation is in P for many common voting rules (by known results).  ...  Toby Walsh is supported by the Australian Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy, the ARC, and the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD-104123).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.5448v1">arXiv:1106.5448v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yevm65ryvjh23anbbyxrwlhwr4">fatcat:yevm65ryvjh23anbbyxrwlhwr4</a> </span>
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Optimal Manipulation of Voting Rules

Svetlana Obraztsova, Edith Elkind
<span title="2021-09-20">2021</span> <i title="Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/wtjcymhabjantmdtuptkk62mlq" style="color: black;">PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH AAAI CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE TWENTY-EIGHTH INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE</a> </i> &nbsp;
Complexity of voting manipulation is a prominent research topic in computational social choice.  ...  The voting manipulation literature usually assumes that the manipulator is only concerned with improving the outcome of the election from her perspective.  ...  Thus, when the manipulator chooses her vote based on the swap distance, she is trying to minimize the number of swaps needed to transform her true ranking into the manipulative vote.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v26i1.8441">doi:10.1609/aaai.v26i1.8441</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ikhizxm5bzbv7c6q65qs2qkqoi">fatcat:ikhizxm5bzbv7c6q65qs2qkqoi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220608230817/https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/AAAI/article/download/8441/8300" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/58/44/5844adaf8391763a72568b843c804d6cacb25f11.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v26i1.8441"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Is Computational Complexity a Barrier to Manipulation? [chapter]

Toby Walsh
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
hardness of manipulating voting rules in practice.  ...  Fortunately, it has been shown that it is NP-hard to compute how to manipulate a number of different voting rules. However, NP-hardness only bounds the worst-case complexity.  ...  The author is also supported by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD-104123).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14977-1_1">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14977-1_1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wbplfpxyyzb57lxl5oquafpymi">fatcat:wbplfpxyyzb57lxl5oquafpymi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190308020912/http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~tw/waaim11.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/6e/95/6e9571626c683452cef3e406d7236526af458f2c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14977-1_1"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Is computational complexity a barrier to manipulation?

Toby Walsh
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/j2td7x4trvgx7pjoienrccryxq" style="color: black;">Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
hardness of manipulating voting rules in practice.  ...  Fortunately, it has been shown that it is NP-hard to compute how to manipulate a number of different voting rules. However, NP-hardness only bounds the worst-case complexity.  ...  The author is also supported by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD-104123).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10472-011-9255-9">doi:10.1007/s10472-011-9255-9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cytm4p5qyfablfpt4kl5cjd2km">fatcat:cytm4p5qyfablfpt4kl5cjd2km</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190308020912/http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~tw/waaim11.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/6e/95/6e9571626c683452cef3e406d7236526af458f2c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10472-011-9255-9"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Universal Voting Protocol Tweaks to Make Manipulation Hard [article]

Vincent Conitzer, Tuomas Sandholm
<span title="2003-07-07">2003</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
The protocols become NP-hard, #P-hard, or PSPACE-hard to manipulate, depending on whether the schedule of the preround is determined before the votes are collected, after the votes are collected, or the  ...  One could try to avoid manipulation by using voting protocols where determining a beneficial manipulation is hard computationally.  ...  Manipulation We now define the computational problem of manipulation.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0307018v1">arXiv:cs/0307018v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7shwacpxdfaxvebd6eezp5osja">fatcat:7shwacpxdfaxvebd6eezp5osja</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/download/arxiv-cs0307018/cs0307018.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> File Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/36/3a/363a7745714060652f7b581eadc66a701a78054d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0307018v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Representing and Reasoning with Preferences

Toby Walsh
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/27wksbinzzhjfow2wuy6m2iefm" style="color: black;">The AI Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
However, the hybrid rule where we apply one round of the cup rule and then the plurality rule to the Agent1 Agent2 Agent3 remaining outcomes is NP-hard to manipulate  ...  For example, rule requires an agenda, the tree of pairwise it has been proven that it is NP-hard to com- majority comparisons.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v28i4.2068">doi:10.1609/aimag.v28i4.2068</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/journals/aim/Walsh07.html">dblp:journals/aim/Walsh07</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/i2zhiqv26fhzxj627kt4vn57di">fatcat:i2zhiqv26fhzxj627kt4vn57di</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20151018033342/http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/download/2068/2055" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ef/34/ef340735035087c34b33237d85ed5873eab82f4d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v28i4.2068"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Manipulation of Nanson's and Baldwin's Rules [article]

Nina Narodytska, Toby Walsh, Lirong Xia
<span title="2011-06-27">2011</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In particular, with unweighted votes, it is NP-hard to manipulate either rule with one manipulator, whilst with weighted votes, it is NP-hard to manipulate either rule with a small number of candidates  ...  As only a couple of other voting rules are known to be NP-hard to manipulate with a single manipulator, Nanson's and Baldwin's rules appear to be particularly resistant to manipulation from a theoretical  ...  Toby Walsh is funded by the Australian Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy and the ARC. Lirong Xia acknowledges a James B.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.5312v1">arXiv:1106.5312v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mcjjickrfjd73gbxrsny5g2kby">fatcat:mcjjickrfjd73gbxrsny5g2kby</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/download/arxiv-1106.5312/1106.5312.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> File Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1106.5312v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

How many candidates are needed to make elections hard to manipulate?

Vincent Conitzer, Jérôme Lang, Tuomas Sandholm
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/wi3otyijsnbgnhvy6gfwdffoiu" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 9th conference on Theoretical aspects of rationality and knowledge - TARK &#39;03</a> </i> &nbsp;
One could try to avoid manipulation by using voting protocols where determining a beneficial manipulation is hard computationally.  ...  The complexity of manipulating realistic elections where the number of candidates is a small constant was recently studied [4], but the emphasis was on the question of whether or not a protocol becomes  ...  Or, 1 Some of the voting protocols require tie-breaking rules (at different stages of the execution of the protocol). These rules are usually left undefined.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/846241.846268">doi:10.1145/846241.846268</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/tark/ConitzerLS03.html">dblp:conf/tark/ConitzerLS03</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/g2giklej3radvlvzdljaai2wxi">fatcat:g2giklej3radvlvzdljaai2wxi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060925065131/http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~sandholm/how_many.tark03.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f0/79/f07961978170b9d4e078136ef3f524ba5bcd49b6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/846241.846268"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

How many candidates are needed to make elections hard to manipulate?

Vincent Conitzer, Jérôme Lang, Tuomas Sandholm
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="ACM Press"> Proceedings of the 9th conference on Theoretical aspects of rationality and knowledge - TARK &#39;03 </i> &nbsp;
One could try to avoid manipulation by using voting protocols where determining a beneficial manipulation is hard computationally.  ...  The complexity of manipulating realistic elections where the number of candidates is a small constant was recently studied [4], but the emphasis was on the question of whether or not a protocol becomes  ...  Or, 1 Some of the voting protocols require tie-breaking rules (at different stages of the execution of the protocol). These rules are usually left undefined.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/846267.846268">doi:10.1145/846267.846268</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4gniqn7eznh6fns2npwuqjwzf4">fatcat:4gniqn7eznh6fns2npwuqjwzf4</a> </span>
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How many candidates are needed to make elections hard to manipulate? [article]

Vincent Conitzer, Jerome Lang, Tuomas Sandholm
<span title="2003-07-02">2003</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
One could try to avoid manipulation by using voting protocols where determining a beneficial manipulation is hard computationally.  ...  The complexity of manipulating realistic elections where the number of candidates is a small constant was recently studied (Conitzer 2002), but the emphasis was on the question of whether or not a protocol  ...  Now, if a partition of the k i exists, let the votes in T corresponding to one half of the partition vote This result also allows us to establish the hardness of destructive manipulation in the plurality  ... 
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