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Latent Variable Grammars for Discontinuous Parsing

Kilian Gebhardt
2019 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Finite-State Methods and Natural Language Processing  
In consequence, a class of more power grammar formalisms called mildly context-sensitive has been studied (cf. Kallmeyer 2010).  ...  However, in recent years it was shown that the application of mildly-context sensitive grammars is feasible in coarse-to-fine parsing approaches (van Cranenburgh 2012; Ruprecht and Denkinger 2019).  ...  In particular, I consider the induction of hybrid grammars, which can be parametrized such that the polynomial complexity of parsing is of bounded degree.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/w19-3103 dblp:conf/fsmnlp/Gebhardt19 fatcat:brxhyu2povfkhprl5betdrmczy

Uniform vs. Nonuniform Membership for Mildly Context-Sensitive Languages: A Brief Survey

Henrik Björklund, Martin Berglund, Petter Ericson
2016 Algorithms  
Parsing for mildly context-sensitive language formalisms is an important area within natural language processing.  ...  This article presents a series of results regarding the complexity of parsing for linear context-free rewriting systems and deterministic tree-walking transducers.  ...  Author Contributions: Henrik Björklund and Martin Berglund did most of the work on the results concerning LCFRSs. Henrik Björklund and Petter Ericson did the work on the results concerning DTWTs.  ... 
doi:10.3390/a9020032 fatcat:dwjred4mkfbdfayxrtkh7ge4iq

Does Formal Complexity Reflect Cognitive Complexity? Investigating Aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an Artificial Language Learning Study

Birgit Öttl, Gerhard Jäger, Barbara Kaup, Iris Berent
2015 PLoS ONE  
According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive).  ...  This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning.  ...  Acknowledgments We acknowledge support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Open Access Publishing Fund of University of Tübingen.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123059 pmid:25885790 pmcid:PMC4401728 fatcat:53dh4hanlbatdkb22ikpegmtz4

The Copying Power of Well-Nested Multiple Context-Free Grammars [chapter]

Makoto Kanazawa, Sylvain Salvati
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
"The class of mildly context-sensitive languages seems to be most adequately approached by [MCFGs] ."  ...  MIX = { w ∈ {a,b,c}* | |w| a = |w| b = |w| c } Limited Cross-Serial Dependencies 18 The language MIX was supposed to be outside of the class mildly context-sensitive languages.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13089-2_29 fatcat:bmortf3onrg5tnz4huxs3syx7e

Grammar Induction for Minimalist Grammars using Variational Bayesian Inference : A Technical Report [article]

Eva Portelance, Amelia Bruno, Daniel Harasim, Leon Bergen, Timothy J. O'Donnell
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The following technical report presents a formal approach to probabilistic minimalist grammar parameter estimation. We describe a formalization of a minimalist grammar.  ...  We then present an algorithm for the application of variational Bayesian inference to this formalization.  ...  The class of grammars which generate mildly context sensitive languages first described by Joshi (1985) are the best suited for describing natural language as they are capable of expressing long-distance  ... 
arXiv:1710.11350v3 fatcat:y2xm4aciozh6pbevqq5qfnsqw4

Marr's levels and the minimalist program

Mark Johnson
2016 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
A simple change to a cognitive system at Marr's computational level may entail complex changes at the other levels of description of the system.  ...  one.  ...  This research was supported by a Google award through the Natural Language Understanding Focused Program, and under the Australian Research Council's Discovery Projects funding scheme (project number DP160102156  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-016-1062-1 pmid:27368624 fatcat:hdstjgwi5jc53lbqiue56ou6wu

On the expressive power of the shuffle operator matched with intersection by regular sets

Joanna Jędrzejowicz, Andrzej Szepietowski
2001 RAIRO - Theoretical Informatics and Applications  
Furthermore we show that the class of languages of the form L ∩ R, with a shuffle language L and a regular language R, contains nonsemilinear languages and does not form a family of mildly contextsensitive  ...  We investigate the complexity of languages described by some expressions containing shuffle operator and intersection.  ...  The class SL ∧ Reg seemed a good candidate for a family of mildly context-sensitive languages in view of fulfilling the condition of polynomial complexity of membership problem [3] and neat description  ... 
doi:10.1051/ita:2001125 fatcat:k5ifh7l6qjd5lna3tm5vezpzby

Languages as hyperplanes: grammatical inference with string kernels

Alexander Clark, Christophe Costa Florêncio, Chris Watkins
2010 Machine Learning  
We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach on some standard examples of context-sensitive languages using small synthetic data sets.  ...  We demonstrate that some mildly context-sensitive languages can be represented in this way and that it is possible to efficiently learn these using kernel PCA.  ...  Acknowledgements This work has been partially supported by the EU funded PASCAL Network of Excellence on Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10994-010-5218-3 fatcat:d6ntfwt4prdofi23n5xplxapyu

Languages as Hyperplanes: Grammatical Inference with String Kernels [chapter]

Alexander Clark, Christophe Costa Florêncio, Chris Watkins
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach on some standard examples of context-sensitive languages using small synthetic data sets.  ...  We demonstrate that some mildly context-sensitive languages can be represented in this way and that it is possible to efficiently learn these using kernel PCA.  ...  Acknowledgements This work has been partially supported by the EU funded PASCAL Network of Excellence on Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11871842_13 fatcat:h5r6asj7wjg4lkjdksyrw4ekvm

Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

G. Jager, J. Rogers
2012 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).  ...  The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages.  ...  The first one-dealt with in this section-considers levels between context-free and context-sensitive languages, so-called mildly context-sensitive languages.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0077 pmid:22688632 pmcid:PMC3367686 fatcat:djhi3u3a6jf55glde77bj42ija

Book ReviewThe Mathematics of Language Marcus Kracht (University of California, Los Angeles) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter (Studies in generative grammar, volume 63), 2003, xvi+589 pp; hardbound, ISBN 3-11-017620-3, $127.00, €98.00

Hans-Jörg Tiede
2004 Computational Linguistics  
It includes a discus- sion of the class of mildly context-sensitive languages, which are widely held to be fairly good approximations to the complexity of natural languages.  ...  While chart parsing is discussed for context-free grammars, a large number of papers on parsing of mildly context-sensitive grammars can be found in conference proceedings, but there is no uniform introduction  ... 
doi:10.1162/0891201042544875 fatcat:u3p7upw6yfgnhpk7tizlsldhii

Page 192 of Computational Linguistics Vol. 31, Issue 2 [page]

2005 Computational Linguistics  
We follow a similar approach in this article by proposing a mildly context-sensitive formalism that can deal with scrambling up to some fixed complexity limit 1 that can be chosen arbitrarily high.  ...  This relation allows us to show that certain subclasses of RSN-MCTAG are mildly context-sensitive and therefore in particular polynomially parsable.  ... 

Restricted Discontinuous Phrase Structure Grammar and Its Ramifications [chapter]

Carl M. Vogel, Tomaz Erjavee
1994 North-Holland Linguistic Series: Linguistic Variations  
The existence DPSG R suggests that there is not a discrete step between the Context Free Grammars (CFGs) and the MCSGs as suggested by the Joshi conjecture of the convergence of mildly context sensitive  ...  The formalism has only slightly greater than context free generative capacity, y et properly less power than the Mildly Context Sensitive Grammars (MCSGs).  ...  Since DPSG R would have to be enriched to capture the language, this suggests that DPSG R is a member of a class of languages that is larger than the context free but smaller than the mildly context sensitive  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-81693-1.50018-x fatcat:dhllsncrpvgdzia4456iefh7wu

Page 513 of Computational Linguistics Vol. 30, Issue 4 [page]

2004 Computational Linguistics  
It includes a discus- sion of the class of mildly context-sensitive languages, which are widely held to be fairly good approximations to the complexity of natural languages.  ...  It concludes with a proof of Parikh’s theorem, which states that every context-free language is semilinear, and a discussion of non-context-free phenomena in natural languages.  ... 

Page 260 of Computational Linguistics Vol. 24, Issue 2 [page]

1998 Computational Linguistics  
An important question in this framework is whether or not the languages in the families CL,,(REG), a € {MI,Mg}, are mildly context-sensitive.  ...  It is obvious that, by definition, contextual languages have the bounded growth property: the set of contexts is finite, passing from one string to another means adjoining of a context from a finite set  ... 
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