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On the complexities of linear LL(1) and LR(1) grammars
[chapter]

1993
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Several notions

doi:10.1007/3-540-57163-9_25
fatcat:wuacgcrb2veq5ablq4zy74he2a
*of*deterministic*linear*languages are considered*and*compared with respect to their*complexities**and*to*the*families*of*formal languages they generate. ... Deterministic*linear*languages turn out to be special cases*of*languages generated by*linear**grammars*restricted to*LL*(*1*) conditions, which have a membership problem solvable in N C*1*. ... In contrast to that both*the*deterministic*linear*languages according to Ibarra, Jiang,*and*Ravikumar 10]*and*those according to Nasu*and*Honda 15] are based*on**linear**grammars*restricted by an*LL*(*1*) ...##
###
Tolerant parsing using modified LR(1) and LL(1) algorithms with embedded "Any" symbol

2019
*
Proceedings of the Institute for System Programming of RAS
*

They allow

doi:10.15514/ispras-2019-31(3)-1
fatcat:hgh5b6nxgrfzpbtmubzs23rbci
*one*to further minimize*the*number*and**complexity**of*water rules*and*make tolerant*grammars*extendible. ... In comparison with*LL*(*1*) tolerant*grammars*,*LR*(*1*) tolerant*grammars*are easier to develop*and*explore due to solid island rules. ... To get a similar benefit from our modified deterministic parsing while preserving mostly*linear**complexity*, we add special Any-based error recovery routines in both*LL*(*1*)*and**LR*(*1*) algorithms. ...##
###
Reachability and error diagnosis in LR(1) parsers

2016
*
Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Compiler Construction - CC 2016
*

We report

doi:10.1145/2892208.2892224
dblp:conf/cc/Pottier16
fatcat:sshofm7langrpawyjxwsqporri
*on*an application*of*this technique to*the*CompCert ISO C99 parser,*and*discuss its strengths*and*limitations. ...*the**grammar*evolves. ...*The*anonymous reviewers offered insightful remarks*and*pointers to*the*literature. ...##
###
LL (1) Parser versus GNF inducted LL (1) Parser on Arithmetic Expressions Grammar: A Comparative Study

2020
*
Quaid-e-awam University research journal of engineering science & technology
*

*The*study adds to

*the*knowledge

*of*parsers itself, parser expression

*grammars*(PEG's),

*LL*(

*1*)

*grammars*, Greibach Normal Form (GNF) induced

*grammar*structure,

*and*

*the*induction

*of*Arithmetic PEG's

*LL*(

*1*) ... Conventional arithmetic expression

*grammar*

*and*its equivalent

*LL*(

*1*) is used in

*the*study which is converted. ...

*LL*(

*1*), bi-directional

*LL*(

*1*)

*and*XML

*grammars*are mostly

*linear*, but sometimes quadratic, depending

*on*

*the*number

*of*spaces included in

*the*input stack. Scott et. al. ...

##
###
A new parsing method for non-LR(1) grammars

1992
*
Software, Practice & Experience
*

MAIN As an example, consider

doi:10.1002/spe.4380220505
fatcat:ke5peqds35czzb7oh56wz43at4
*the*following*grammar*fragment:*One*symbol*of*look ahead is insufficient to distinguish between 〈 leftside 〉*and*〈 expression 〉 (*the**grammar*may not even be*LR*( k ) if expressions ...*One**of**the*difficult problems that faces a compiler writer is to devise a*grammar*that is suitable for both efficient parsing*and*semantic attribution. ... Mark Swain, Masayoshi Ishikawa, Robert Gray,*and*David Bowling provided useful*grammars*. We also wish to thank*the*students who tried out*the*system. ...##
###
Formal Grammars and Languages
[chapter]

2009
*
Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook, Second Edition, Volume 1
*

It is easy to show that our

doi:10.1201/9781584888239-c20
fatcat:k4e5ivi7ujgpbkb47nectsjwxi
*LL*parser runs in*linear*time for any*LL*(*1*)*grammar*. What can we do for*grammars*that are not*LL*(*1*), such as G 9 ? ... Here,*the*"*1*" signifies*the*fact that*the**LL*parser uses*one*input symbol*of*lookahead to decide its next move. For example, G 8 is an*LL*(*1*)*grammar*, while G 9 is not. ... ACTION (q, c) can be*one**of**the*following:*1*. shift, 2. reduce by A → α, where A → α is a production in*the**grammar*, 3. accept,*and*4. blank . ...##
###
LLLR Parsing: a Combination of LL and LR Parsing

2016
*
Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies
*

An embedded

doi:10.4230/oasics.slate.2016.5
dblp:conf/slate/Slivnik16
fatcat:5neinj4wxnhrnkresckqnmp34m
*LR*parser starts parsing*the*remaining input*and*once*the**LL*conflict is resolved,*the**LR*parser produces*the*left parse*of**the*substring it has just parsed*and*passes*the*control back to*the*...*The*LLLR(k) parser can be constructed for any*LR*(k)*grammar*. ...*One*could also use a much stronger GLR parsing but*the*time*complexity*is O(np+*1*) (where p is*the*length*of**the*longest production). ...##
###
Derivational complexity of context-free grammars

1982
*
Information and Control
*

Minimal grammardependent upper bounds are determined both

doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(82)91111-1
fatcat:pd5xnqczavbytkpqzz2aw7cqy4
*on**the*derivational time*complexity*, that is,*the*number*of*derivation steps needed to derive a sentence*of*given length,*and**on**the*derivational ... In addition to general context-free*grammars*, these upper bounds are also determined specifically for e-free*grammars*, non-leftrecursive*and*non-right-recursive*grammars*,*and*for*LL*(k)*grammars*. ... ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank Eljas Soisalon-Soininen for illuminating discussions*on**the*topic*of**the*paper. ...##
###
Boolean grammars

2004
*
Information and Computation
*

A new generalization

doi:10.1016/j.ic.2004.03.006
fatcat:72ahhppp7rdu7dh522atfhgq7u
*of*context-free*grammars*is introduced: Boolean*grammars*allow*the*use*of*all settheoretic operations as an integral part*of**the*formalism*of*rules. ... cubic-time recognition algorithm*and*some limited extension*of**the*notion*of*a parse tree, which together allow to conjecture practical applicability*of**the*new concept. ... Several parsing algorithms for conjunctive*grammars*with worst-case cubic time performance, including extensions*of**LL*(k)*and*generalized*LR*, were developed*and*implemented in a parser generator [23] ...##
###
A forward move algorithm for LL and LR parsers

1982
*
Proceedings of the 1982 SIGPLAN symposium on Compiler construction - SIGPLAN '82
*

*The*algorithm to compute such corrections is

*linear*in

*the*size

*of*

*the*

*grammar*,

*and*cubic in

*the*size

*of*

*the*region. ...

*and*Jon Mauney, "

*On*

*the*role

*of*error productions in syntactic error correction," Computer

*LL*(

*1*) error corrector," Tech. Report #371, University

*of*Wisconsin (August 1979). ...

##
###
Partitioned chain grammars
[chapter]

1980
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

This paper introduces a new class

doi:10.1007/3-540-10003-2_98
fatcat:leje5shzwvf37ebauenvf5lx7e
*of**grammars*,*the*partitioned chain*grammars*, for which efficient parsers can be automatically generated. ... Main advantage*of**the*partitioned chain gramrnars however is, that given a language it is usually easier to describe it by a partitioned chain*grammar*than to construct a*grammar**of*some other type commonly ...*The*reader is assumed to be familiar with*the*basic concepts*of*context-free*grammars**and*parsing, in particular with*the*definition*and**the*parsing-methods for*LR*(k)-, LALR(k)-, SLR(k)*and**LL*(k)-*grammars*...##
###
Deciding the inequivalence of context-free grammars with 1-letter terminal alphabet is ΣP2-complete

1984
*
Theoretical Computer Science
*

This paper deals with

doi:10.1016/0304-3975(84)90092-6
fatcat:g2uvldjryvfrvphefujm3nbqne
*the**complexity**of*context-free*grammars*with l-letter terminal alphabet. We stuily*the**complexity**of**the*membership problem*and**the*inequivalence problem. ... We show that*the*first problem is NP-complete*and**the*second*one*is Zg-complete with respect to log-space reduction. ... Simon for some critical resnarks; concerning this paper,*and*an anonymous referee for many helpful suggestions in clarifying*the*presentation*of*this work. ...##
###
LR recursive transition networks for Earley and Tomita parsing

1991
*
Proceedings of the 29th annual meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics -
*

*The*

*linear*text

*of*a context-free

*grammar*can be cast into an RTN structure (Perlin, 1989) . This is done by expanding each

*grammar*rule into a

*linear*chain. ... By only recursing

*on*unvisited nodes, this traversal

*of*

*the*

*grammar*RTN has time cost O(IGI) (Aho, Sethi,

*and*UUman, 1986) , where IGI >_ IRTNI is

*the*size

*of*

*the*

*grammar*(or its RTN graph). ...

##
###
Parsing expression grammars

2004
*
SIGPLAN notices
*

A

doi:10.1145/982962.964011
fatcat:63a6etkqv5durlfo2nptfadsdi
*linear*-time parser can be built for any PEG, avoiding both*the**complexity**and*fickleness*of**LR*parsers*and**the*inefficiency*of*generalized CFG parsing. ... For decades we have been using Chomsky's generative system*of**grammars*, particularly context-free*grammars*(CFGs)*and*regular expressions (REs), to express*the*syntax*of*programming languages*and*protocols ... Acknowledgments I would like to thank my advisor Frans Kaashoek, as well as François Pottier, Robert Grimm, Terence Parr, Arnar Birgisson,*and**the*POPL reviewers, for valuable feedback*and*discussion*and*...##
###
Formal Grammars and Languages
[chapter]

1998
*
Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook
*

It is easy to show that our

doi:10.1201/9781420049503-c26
fatcat:x3mj3ftb5rhf3nih23b7dr4l54
*LL*parser runs in*linear*time for any*LL*(*1*)*grammar*. What can we do for*grammars*that are not*LL*(*1*), such as G 9 ? ... Here,*the*"*1*" signifies*the*fact that*the**LL*parser uses*one*input symbol*of*lookahead to decide its next move. For example, G 8 is an*LL*(*1*)*grammar*, while G 9 is not. ... ACTION (q, c) can be*one**of**the*following:*1*. shift, 2. reduce by A → α, where A → α is a production in*the**grammar*, 3. accept,*and*4. blank . ...
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