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On the "Naturalness" of Buggy Code [article]

Baishakhi Ray, Vincent Hellendoorn, Saheel Godhane, Zhaopeng Tu, Alberto Bacchelli, Premkumar Devanbu
2015 arXiv   pre-print
We consider a large corpus of bug fix commits (ca.~8,296), from 10 different Java projects, and we focus on its language statistics, evaluating the naturalness of buggy code and the corresponding fixes  ...  cost-effectiveness of inspecting code implicated in warnings.  ...  Do language models rate bug-fix code as more natural than the buggy code they replaced? This would essentially mean that the bug fix code is assigned a higher probability than the buggy code.  ... 
arXiv:1506.01159v2 fatcat:vi55st4mdbckzaxha4tyko7sjm

On the "naturalness" of buggy code

Baishakhi Ray, Vincent Hellendoorn, Saheel Godhane, Zhaopeng Tu, Alberto Bacchelli, Premkumar Devanbu
2016 Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering - ICSE '16  
We consider a large corpus of bug fix commits (ca. 7,139), from 10 different Java projects, and focus on its language statistics, evaluating the naturalness of buggy code and the corresponding fixes.  ...  measure improves the cost-effectiveness of inspecting code implicated in warnings.  ...  Figure 2 To understand the effect of tangled changes on the naturalness of buggy code, we compute entropy difference between buggy and non-buggy lines at various bug-fix size thresholds.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2884781.2884848 dblp:conf/icse/RayHGTBD16 fatcat:dov4rms53jaznhcto3yunlpe2i

Exploring the Naturalness of Buggy Code with Recurrent Neural Networks [article]

Jack Lanchantin, Ji Gao
2018 arXiv   pre-print
., 2015) showed that it is possible train an n-gram source code language mode, and use it to predict buggy lines in code by determining "unnatural" lines via entropy with respect to the language model.  ...  In this work, we propose using a more advanced language modeling technique, Long Short-term Memory recurrent neural networks, to model source code and classify buggy lines based on entropy.  ...  ., 2015) showed that it is possible to predict buggy lines of code based on the entropy of the line with respect to a code language model.  ... 
arXiv:1803.08793v1 fatcat:5f6ycji2b5avpijqlvk67udjly

Enhancing the Unified Features to Locate Buggy Files by Exploiting the Sequential Nature of Source Code

Xuan Huo, Ming Li
2017 Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
Experimental results on widely-used software projects indicate that LS-CNN significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in locating buggy files.  ...  In this paper, we propose a novel model LS-CNN, which enhances the unified features by exploiting the sequential nature of source code.  ...  One question arises here: can we enhance the unified feature by considering sequential nature of source code?  ... 
doi:10.24963/ijcai.2017/265 dblp:conf/ijcai/HuoL17 fatcat:g6enn52phjckjhr2ais7kaw2ye

Scalable and systematic detection of buggy inconsistencies in source code

Mark Gabel, Junfeng Yang, Yuan Yu, Moises Goldszmidt, Zhendong Su
2010 Proceedings of the ACM international conference on Object oriented programming systems languages and applications - OOPSLA '10  
This practice can hinder the maintenance of a software project: bugs may arise when two identical code segments are edited inconsistently.  ...  On a 75+ million line pre-production commercial code base, DejaVu executed in under five hours and produced a report of over 8,000 potential bugs.  ...  s work, our work inherently exposes the nature of the inconsistencies, greatly simplifying the repair of the defects.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1869459.1869475 dblp:conf/oopsla/GabelYYGS10 fatcat:xugtvtt4ejdltpi6stoppu3unm

Scalable and systematic detection of buggy inconsistencies in source code

Mark Gabel, Junfeng Yang, Yuan Yu, Moises Goldszmidt, Zhendong Su
2010 SIGPLAN notices  
This practice can hinder the maintenance of a software project: bugs may arise when two identical code segments are edited inconsistently.  ...  On a 75+ million line pre-production commercial code base, DejaVu executed in under five hours and produced a report of over 8,000 potential bugs.  ...  s work, our work inherently exposes the nature of the inconsistencies, greatly simplifying the repair of the defects.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1932682.1869475 fatcat:va5ldszwnbbstgg32hnowcmoxe

On the "naturalness" of buggy code

Baishakhi Ray, Vincent Hellendoorn, Saheel Godhane, Zhaopeng Tu, Alberto Bacchelli, Premkumar Devanbu
2016
We consider a large corpus of bug fix commits (ca. 7,139), from 10 different Java projects, and focus on its language statistics, evaluating the naturalness of buggy code and the corresponding fixes.  ...  We consider a large corpus of bug fix commits (ca. 7,139), from 10 different Java projects, and focus on its language statistics, evaluating the naturalness of buggy code and the corresponding fixes.  ...  Figure 2 To understand the effect of tangled changes on the naturalness of buggy code, we compute entropy difference between buggy and non-buggy lines at various bug-fix size thresholds.  ... 
doi:10.5167/uzh-197772 fatcat:nsi5qzv34nerrmkdd6bjaulqmq

On the Nature of Programming Exercises

Alberto Simões, Ricardo Queirós, Alberto Simões, Mário Pinto, Filipe Portela, Ricardo Queirós
2020 International Computer Programming Education Conference  
Hence, it is essential to understand that the nature of a programming exercise is an important factor for the success and consistent learning.  ...  This paper explores different approaches on the creation of a programming exercise, starting with realizing how it is currently formalized, presented and evaluated.  ...  In some 24:4 On the Nature of Programming Exercises cases examples of application will be discussed.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.icpec.2020.24 dblp:conf/icpec/SimoesQ20 fatcat:b64jilmzg5gbpaa5g5g5o5c6he

On the naturalness of software

Abram Hindle, Earl T. Barr, Mark Gabel, Zhendong Su, Premkumar Devanbu
2016 Communications of the ACM  
We show that code is also very repetitive, and in fact even more so than natural languages.  ...  As an example use of the model, we have developed a simple code completion engine for Java that, despite its simplicity, already improves Eclipse's completion capability.  ...  In this case, we could use version control tools to establish the provenance of different types of bugs, which are a form of annotation d over the buggy code fragments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2902362 fatcat:osgdmzg32jcr5ngh5p4laeeira

On the naturalness of software

Abram Hindle, Earl T. Barr, Zhendong Su, Mark Gabel, Premkumar Devanbu
2012 2012 34th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE)  
We show that code is also very repetitive, and in fact even more so than natural languages.  ...  As an example use of the model, we have developed a simple code completion engine for Java that, despite its simplicity, already improves Eclipse's completion capability.  ...  In this case, we could use version control tools to establish the provenance of different types of bugs, which are a form of annotation d over the buggy code fragments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icse.2012.6227135 dblp:conf/icse/HindleBSGD12 fatcat:r65jidi26jbpnf2eafbo3qi5am

On the naturalness of software

Prem Devanbu
2013 Proceedings of the 6th India Software Engineering Conference on - ISEC '13  
We show that code is also very repetitive, and in fact even more so than natural languages.  ...  As an example use of the model, we have developed a simple code completion engine for Java that, despite its simplicity, already improves Eclipse's completion capability.  ...  In this case, we could use version control tools to establish the provenance of different types of bugs, which are a form of annotation d over the buggy code fragments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2442754.2442763 dblp:conf/indiaSE/Devanbu13 fatcat:zh4tnlduu5bmngeipxaftaqwqq

TUNA: TUning Naturalness-Based Analysis

Matthieu Jimenez, Cordy Maxime, Yves Le Traon, Mike Papadakis
2018 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME)  
As an example, feeding a model with buggy code makes it capable of detecting new bugs, that is, the code containing the bugs will appear natural to the model.  ...  Since the seminal work of Hindle et al. [1] on software naturalness, natural language processing techniques were applied successfully to facilitate a number of software engineering tasks, such as code  ...  As an example, feeding a model with buggy code makes it capable of detecting new bugs, that is, the code containing the bugs will appear natural to the model.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icsme.2018.00087 dblp:conf/icsm/JimenezCTP18a fatcat:77plw3mqgfadro43l5lgzw4req

:Skin: A Natural History

TRENTON HOLLIDAY
2007 American Anthropologist  
All of this and much more are covered in the brief, highly readable, and wonderfully informative Skin: A Natural History by Nina G.  ...  to coding the proteins that make up the keratin- rich layer of the skin” (p. 14): it now appears that William Montagna was correct when he surmised that a more effec- tive epidermal barrier distinguishes  ... 
doi:10.1525/aa.2007.109.4.770.1 fatcat:hbvjdvc5ynaaxd5mpk7g7kxeua

Natural Gas: More Gasbuggies

1969 Nature  
Called the Computer Services Bureaux Association (Cosba), the trade association has already had a success with its code of conduct for members, published last year (Nature, 219, 995; 1968), which protects  ...  These new projects are more ambitious than Ga~:> buggy, which was jointly financed by the AEC and the El Paso Natural Gas Company and which involved exploding a 2fi kiloton device at a depth of 4,240 feet  ... 
doi:10.1038/222107b0 fatcat:qxwbt7g3g5eazap6sa7bmbhray

On Relating Technical, Social Factors, and the Introduction of Bugs [article]

Filipe Falcão, Caio Barbosa, Baldoino Fonseca, Alessandro Garcia, Márcio Ribeiro, França Sales
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Particularly, the developers' habits of not following technical contribution norms are associated with an increase on commit bugginess.  ...  Unexpectedly, the presence of tests in commits presents a relation with the increase of commit bugginess.  ...  code (F3), nature of a developer's commits (F4), and bugginess of a developer's commits (F5).  ... 
arXiv:1811.01918v1 fatcat:zdxkzv4mvbdopklnti2ybiqemq
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