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The computational complexity of ideal semantics

Paul E. Dunne
2009 Artificial Intelligence  
complexity of deciding credulous acceptance: C = np for afs and logic programming (lp) instantiations of abfs; C = Σ p 2 for abfs modelling default theories.  ...  In particular the task of finding the unique ideal extension is easier than that of deciding if a given argument is accepted under the sceptical semantics.  ...  Acknowledgements The author thanks the reviewers for their comments and observations which have improved the presentation of this article.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artint.2009.09.001 fatcat:trdp32jl7ffd5kpct6i324ykwa

Network security supported by arguments

Fabio Martinelli, Francesco Santini, Artsiom Yautsiukhin
2015 2015 13th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST)  
Argumentation has been proved as a simple yet powerful approach to manage conflicts in reasoning with the purpose to find subsets of "surviving" arguments.  ...  Our intent is to exploit such form of resolution to support the administration of security in complex systems, e.g., in case threat countermeasures are in conflict with non-functional requirements.  ...  Moreover, we can also define a strength level for each argument. A sceptically accepted argument proves to be stronger than a credulously accepted one.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pst.2015.7232969 dblp:conf/pst/MartinelliSY15 fatcat:qkl2m5kl65g5lcti5ghj4ohwr4

Experimental Assessment of Aggregation Principles in Argumentation-Enabled Collective Intelligence

Edmond Awad, Jean-François Bonnefon, Martin Caminada, Thomas W. Malone, Iyad Rahwan
2017 ACM Transactions on Internet Technology  
On the Web, there is always a need to aggregate opinions from the crowd (as in posts, social networks, forums, etc.).  ...  We can view a set of conflicting arguments as a graph in which the nodes represent arguments and the arcs between these nodes represent the defeat relation.  ...  For example, one can see that arguments B and C cannot be accepted together.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3053371 fatcat:csm5qkkkgjd43mlsxefxck5i2u

Enumerating Preferred Extensions: A Case Study of Human Reasoning [chapter]

Alice Toniolo, Timothy J. Norman, Nir Oren
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The degree of believability of a conclusion may be associated with the number of preferred extensions in which the conclusion is credulously accepted.  ...  This paper seeks to better understand the links between human reasoning and preferred extensions as found within formal argumentation, especially in the context of uncertainty.  ...  In purely qualitative argumentation frameworks, this acceptance is either credulous (when there is at least one extension in which the argument under consideration is accepted), or sceptical (when the  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-75553-3_14 fatcat:2iluqfznzrerzpm7rpxjtbefyi

Argumentation Context Systems: A Framework for Abstract Group Argumentation [chapter]

Gerhard Brewka, Thomas Eiter
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
vs. credulous) and even the chosen semantics can be explicitly represented.  ...  The framework consists of a collection of abstract argument systems connected via mediators.  ...  of attack relationships among arguments; e) a reasoning mode (sceptical vs. credulous); and f) an argumentation semantics (stable, preferred, grounded).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04238-6_7 fatcat:hg5avvasynhi7jvvmvhluxnyey

Weighted argument systems: Basic definitions, algorithms, and complexity results

Paul E. Dunne, Anthony Hunter, Peter McBurney, Simon Parsons, Michael Wooldridge
2011 Artificial Intelligence  
We begin by reviewing Dung's abstract argument systems, and motivating weights on attacks (as opposed to the alternative possibility, which is to attach weights to arguments).  ...  We investigate solutions for weighted argument systems and the complexity of computing such solutions, focussing in particular on weighted variations of grounded extensions.  ...  These arguments are mutually attacking, and in the terminology of Dung's abstract argument systems [19] , both arguments are credulously accepted, neither is sceptically accepted, and the grounded extension  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artint.2010.09.005 fatcat:cbflfwyhbnffzlksmhcotpijmi

Senses of 'argument' in instantiated argumentation frameworks

Adam Wyner, Trevor Bench-Capon, Paul Dunne, Federico Cerutti
2015 Argument & Computation  
This paradigm of nesting arguments inside other arguments has been proved to be very powerful and flexible, but in this paper we show an easier way to construct atomic abstract arguments -in a one-to-one  ...  (i) a one-step reason for a claim (Argument with capital 'A'); (ii) a chain of reasoning leading towards a claim (Case); and (iii) reasons for and against a claim (Debate).  ...  In alternative terminology, we may say to structure arguments, which we use interchangeably.  ... 
doi:10.1080/19462166.2014.1002535 fatcat:wsp627j25jbmtdz53fdoki3ufy

Robust semantics for argumentation frameworks

H Jakobovits
1999 Journal of Logic and Computation  
The various definitions of acceptability of argument sets can all deal with contradiction within an argumentation framework.  ...  We suggest a so-called "robust" semantics for a model of argumentation which represents arguments and their interactions, called "argumentation frameworks".  ...  The next example shows how the acceptable semantics captures both sceptical and credulous reasoning.  ... 
doi:10.1093/logcom/9.2.215 fatcat:3tgz47dgdzdktp6ehbcbvq6wyq

Bipolar Abstract Argumentation with Dual Attacks and Supports

Nico Potyka
2020 Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning  
Bipolar abstract argumentation frameworks allow modeling decision problems by defining pro and contra arguments and their relationships.  ...  However, for some applications, it seems sensible to treat attack and support equally. Roughly speaking, turning an attack edge into a support edge, should just invert its meaning.  ...  Introduction Abstract argumentation (Dung 1995) studies the acceptability of arguments abstracted from their content, just based on their relationships.  ... 
doi:10.24963/kr.2020/69 dblp:conf/kr/Potyka20 fatcat:hhorkatu2jgfnnkaiyhboltz24

Weakly Complete Semantics Based on Undecidedness Blocking [article]

Pierpaolo Dondio, Luca Longo
2021 arXiv   pre-print
an otherwise accepted attacked argument.  ...  In the last part of the paper we compare weakly complete semantics with the recent work of Baumann et al. on weakly admissible semantics.  ...  Proposition 4.6 also solves the credulous acceptance problem for weakly complete semantics.  ... 
arXiv:2103.10701v1 fatcat:bjtou6kk4je55i67fku24ghwuq

Microdebates App for Android: A Tool for Participating in Argumentative Online Debates Using a Handheld Device

Nefise Yaglikci, Paolo Torroni
2014 2014 IEEE 26th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence  
One can also visualize opinions of other microdebaters, explore ongoing debates, and see where the consensus is.  ...  Microdebates App for Android is a part of a research effort aimed to propose better ways of exchanging ideas and opinions in online communities.  ...  We also wish to thank the Erasmus Training programme for sponsoring the first author's visit to the University of Bologna, Francesco Santini for his feedback and help with ConArg, and Aldo di Virgilio,  ... 
doi:10.1109/ictai.2014.122 dblp:conf/ictai/YaglikciT14 fatcat:ud26mt5oargybl46adsudwwlh4

Abstract Argumentation and Values [chapter]

Trevor Bench-Capon, Katie Atkinson
2009 Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence  
facts, logic, which arguments are valid, which arguments attack one another and the 3 Abstract Argumentation and Values 47  ...  For many common cases of argument, however, this is not appropriate: two arguments can conflict, and yet both be accepted.  ...  Within standard abstract argumentation frameworks one approach to recognising the importance of direction of fit [22] is to require sceptical acceptance for epistemic arguments but only credulous acceptance  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-98197-0_3 fatcat:cndex27dn5bxhovgo3ongst5ci

A Three-Layer Argumentation Framework [chapter]

Paulo Maio, Nuno Silva
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Argumentation frameworks which are abstract are suitable for the study of independent properties of any specific aspect (e.g. arguments sceptical and credulous admissible) that are relevant for any argumentation  ...  However, its direct adoption on specific application contexts requires dealing with questions such as the argument structure, the argument categories, the conditions under which an attack/support is established  ...  Given that, one considers that (i) an argument is sceptical admissible if it belongs to any preferred extension and (ii) an argument is credulous admissible if it belongs to at least one preferred extension  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29184-5_11 fatcat:me5ue6pzqzgjpa3croihalzrhm

Collective argumentation: A survey of aggregation issues around argumentation frameworks

Gustavo Bodanza, Fernando Tohmé, Marcelo Auday
2017 Argument & Computation  
Dung's argumentation frameworks have been applied for over twenty years to the analysis of argument justification.  ...  This representation focuses on arguments and the attacks among them, abstracting away from other features like the internal structure of arguments, the nature of utterers, the specifics of the attack relation  ...  L so is free of the discursive dilemma for argument systems, as well as credulous and super credulous aggregate labellings obtained in terms of other extension concepts.  ... 
doi:10.3233/aac-160014 fatcat:f2bp6gpt3bgdrbvw6k3ll3y2cu

Do cultural factors affect causal beliefs? Rational and magical thinking in Britain and Mexico

Eugene Subbotsky, Graciela Quinteros
2002 British Journal of Psychology  
One of the pioneering studies of the role of culture in the development of cognitive processes was conducted by Alexander Luria (Luria, 1931 (Luria, , 1971 (Luria, , 1976 .  ...  However, when the risk of disregarding the possible causal effect of magic was increased, participants in both samples showed an equal degree of credulity in the possible effect of magic.  ...  They are also grateful to Honorine Nocon and Rachel Morse for their careful reading of this manuscript and valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1348/000712602761381385 pmid:12519532 fatcat:nzotp6e3tjeajckez4r2cd2wc4
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