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On Biases of Attention in Scientific Discovery [article]

Uriel Singer, Kira Radinsky, Eric Horvitz
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
We pursue an understanding of the influences of patterns of attention on discovery with a case study about confirmations of protein-protein interactions over time.  ...  We find that modeling and accounting for attention can help us to recognize and interpret biases in databases of confirmed interactions and to better understand missing data and unknowns in our fund of  ...  On Countering Attentional Influences We now pursue means for recognizing and countering the influence of biases of attention in discoveries about protein interactions.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.04.08.002378 fatcat:edmi753q65cnri2watt3nwe2o4

A Computational Inflection for Scientific Discovery [article]

Tom Hope, Doug Downey, Oren Etzioni, Daniel S. Weld, Eric Horvitz
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We stand at the foot of a significant inflection in the trajectory of scientific discovery.  ...  , solutions and evidence synthesized to directly augment human performance on salient tasks in scientific endeavors.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the members of the Semantic Scholar team for stimulating discussions.  ... 
arXiv:2205.02007v1 fatcat:d2dsit6msng6xhlpkb7ckgoi6q

Data on How Science Is Made Can Make Science Better

Jamshid Sourati, Alexander Belikov, James Evans
2022 Harvard data science review  
Scientific publications contain data on the content of published research and metadata on the context that gave rise to that research.  ...  Linked scientific data can also enable the construction of artificial intelligence agents designed to complement the disciplinary focus of human scientific attention by proposing possibilities overlooked  ...  If built on prior research patterns, they could amplify biases already present in the research community without natural correction.  ... 
doi:10.1162/99608f92.d5684866 doaj:4bd58097e2b84a5a88d5a15da74eaf05 fatcat:h4y2lcnd5feprozi45iop6txge

Page 488 of The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Vol. 9, Issue 3 [page]

2003 The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute  
Thus in seeking to go beyond ide- alized arguments about scientific method and its potential biases on a theo- retical level, we need to develop more detailed consideration of the methods and knowledges  ...  We need to pay much closer attention to what constitutes ‘data’ in any research, and recognize that all archaeological data have a history of discovery that influences how the data are collected, treated  ... 

Page 121 of Higher Education Quarterly Vol. 5, Issue 2 [page]

1951 Higher Education Quarterly  
Much research needs to be done into the psychological effect of scientific discoveries or of national victories in creating a climate of confidence which in its turn makes other discoveries or victories  ...  As well as giving attention to the subjects of the curriculum and effective ways of teaching them, we need to find out very much more about the apparently incidental education which is going on all the  ... 

Facing small and biased data dilemma in drug discovery with federated learning [article]

Zhaoping Xiong, Ziqiang Cheng, Xiaohong Liu, Dingyan Wang, Xiaomin Luo, Kaixian Chen, Hualiang Jiang, Mingyue Zheng
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Artificial intelligence (AI) models usually require large amounts of high quality training data, which is in striking contrast to the situation of small and biased data faced by current drug discovery  ...  Our work demonstrates the application of federated learning in predicting drug related properties, but also highlights its promising role in addressing the small data and biased data dilemma in drug discovery  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.03.19.998898 fatcat:qdcckb7owvctjdtwkbdcowk3am

Page 657 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 79, Issue 2 [page]

1992 Psychological Abstracts  
(Columbia U, Teachers Coll, New York, NY). of scientific discovery: Aesthetics and cognition. [In: (PA Vol 79:3784) Visions of aesthetics, the envi- ronment & development: The legacy of Joachim F.  ...  expected to represent the production of a series of problem- solving efforts © but if we want to situate the process of scientific discovery within the context of a purposeful cre- ative life, we need  ... 

Large scale evidence and replication: insights from rheumatology and beyond

J P A Ioannidis
2004 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  
In fact, such discovery-driven research is increasingly being established as a paradigm of novelty in influential scientific circles. 6 It is not surprising that given this huge mass of ''scientific'  ...  Sample size seen in isolation is not a reliable marker of high scientific standards.  ... 
doi:10.1136/ard.2004.027979 pmid:15458962 pmcid:PMC1755405 fatcat:ixwjf2jkdvb4vnh76uwx5crdxq

Why Science Is Not Necessarily Self-Correcting

John P. A. Ioannidis
2012 Perspectives on Psychological Science  
In the absence of replication efforts, one is left with unconfirmed (genuine) discoveries and unchallenged fallacies.  ...  Depending on the types of results obtained in the discovery and replication phases, there are different paradigms of research: optimal, self-correcting, false nonreplication, and perpetuated fallacy.  ...  a lot of attention and when the refutation is easy and quick to obtain.  ... 
doi:10.1177/1745691612464056 pmid:26168125 fatcat:ukcftbuj3vghdh5pawkfw5jz5y

Toward a more scientific science

Pierre Azoulay, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Brian Uzzi, Dashun Wang, Heidi Williams, James A. Evans, Ginger Zhe Jin, Susan Feng Lu, Benjamin F. Jones, Katy Börner, Karim R. Lakhani, Kevin J. Boudreau (+1 others)
2018 Science  
We implemented a procedure (drawing on automated analysis of keywords in publications) to delineate the boundaries of the intellectual neighborhoods in which eminent scientists worked and conceptualized  ...  We found that after the deaths, the stars' expansive rosters of collaborators tend to drastically reduce their scientific output (1), whereas noncollaborators increase their output in the deceased stars  ...  Yet although the scientific community makes tremendous investments aimed at finding new discoveries, much less attention focuses on improving access to past discoveries-efforts that could help us, like  ... 
doi:10.1126/science.aav2484 pmid:30237341 fatcat:2fbfetrn5jf3jbeyiugkjksg64

Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma

Michael J Selgelid
2009 Bulletin of the World Health Organization  
اﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟەذە‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧەاﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟەذە‬ ‫.اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ABSTRACT Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes  ...  Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists.  ...  (where dual-use life sciences research has received the majority of attention) relies on voluntary self-governance of the scientific community in matters of censorship, as recommended by the NRC.  ... 
doi:10.2471/blt.08.051383 pmid:19784453 pmcid:PMC2739909 fatcat:4ogbpzk755abrjrb6wia3kezwq

Mentoring minority trainees: Minorities in academia face specific challenges that mentors should address to instill confidence

Antentor O Hinton, Zer Vue, Christina M Termini, Brittany L Taylor, Haysetta D Shuler, Melanie R McReynolds
2020 EMBO Reports  
A toolkit for mentoring minority students and trainees in science.  ...  Scientific discovery requires that everyone has the opportunity to test their ideas in an environment that celebrates creativity and accepts diversity.  ...  There is a plethora of work that demonstrates the need to pay closer attention to implicit biases and to understand that these may give more insight to subconscious or even overt biases (Chatterjee et  ... 
doi:10.15252/embr.202051269 pmid:32985063 fatcat:hribbhztojhpnaya6o3cjqjhcu

Valorizing omics visualization for discovery

Christine Chichester, Tobias Kuhn
2017 Data Science  
Creating this type of visualization takes time, much trial and error, and an attention to psychological as well as the scientific detail.  ...  Quantifying visualization in the scientific discovery process The power and value of visualization is often described by its ability to foster insight into and improve understanding of data, which then  ... 
doi:10.3233/ds-170009 dblp:journals/datasci/Chichester17 fatcat:a5hdcgrwn5c3jkmeo3nhqt5tpa

Page 41 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 79, Issue 1 [page]

1992 Psychological Abstracts  
(U Washington, Seattle) In- dividual differences in Stroop dilution: Tests of the attention- capture hypothesis.  ...  By assuming that such relations are supported by schematic world knowledge, it is possible to account for the results in terms of constraints on and attentional control over the activation of background  ... 
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