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Tree-Chain: A Fast Lightweight Consensus Algorithm for IoT Applications

Ali Dorri, Raja Jurdak
2020 2020 IEEE 45th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN)  
Tree-chain will enable new fast blockchain applications in more resource-constrained scenarios such as IoT.  ...  CONCLUSION This paper proposed tree-chain, a scalable fast blockchain optimized for IoT applications.  ... 
doi:10.1109/lcn48667.2020.9314831 fatcat:3oaomxmhibbzjkxjiufdamosju

Tree-Chain: A Fast Lightweight Consensus Algorithm for IoT Applications [article]

Ali Dorri, Raja Jurdak
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we propose tree-chain a scalable fast blockchain instantiation that introduces two levels of randomization among the validators: i) transaction level where the validator of each transaction  ...  Tree-chain introduces parallel chain branches where each validator commits the corresponding transactions in a unique ledger.  ...  As evident from the results shown in Figure 6 , tree-chain achieves a fast block generation time. IoT nodes generate millions of transactions and blocks.  ... 
arXiv:2005.09443v1 fatcat:2gd7k6cugff4xpkqbnihxd2evy

A Study on Blockchain Interoperability Mechanism

2021 Journal of system and management sciences  
In this paper, we propose a general cross-chain solution based on the idea of modularity, abstraction, and layering, which decoupling the cross-chain function from the consensus algorithm and specific  ...  In recent years, the concept of interoperability has been investigating quite intensively, and there are also a few cross-chain projects that come into the field of vision.  ...  The Hash Time Locking mechanism implements a fast transaction channel under Bitcoin et al., 2014) In 2016, the BTC Relay scheme (Consensys, 2016) was released, and one-way cross-chain communication from  ... 
doi:10.33168/jsms.2021.0407 fatcat:xfw7y3iitngg7d2pda2p7oqqzq

A blockchain index structure based on subchain query

Xiaogang Xing, Yuling Chen, Tao Li, Yang Xin, Hongwei Sun
2021 Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications  
The query method based on the account transaction trace chain (ATTC) improves the query efficiency of historical transactions of the account.  ...  However, the existing blockchain system has weak performance in data management, and only supports traversal queries with transaction hashes as keywords.  ...  At the same time, we thank Yufeng Li, Chaoyue Tan and Juan Ma for their help in this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13677-021-00268-0 doaj:5e45ef1aacf44f7b9bccd08d9d6a052a fatcat:tukl2uu5xvgo3hxnggv6l3fan4

Video Streaming Based on Blockchain State Channel with IoT Camera

Min-Hyuk Jeong, Sang-Kyun Kim
2022 Journal of Web Engineering  
To overcome the slow trading speed and the disability of proper refunding, the off-chain transaction, one of the blockchain scaling techniques, was applied and implemented in the system.  ...  To investigate the possibility of a blockchain camera streaming service, we upload a smart contract for streaming service on Etherium-based blockchain, and ERC20 tokens necessary for the transaction are  ...  Acknowledgement This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (1711107567, Study on human factors of 360 • VR sensorial effects  ... 
doi:10.13052/jwe1540-9589.2134 fatcat:vcuxdcycp5dnnfwyqxovnffoze

An Improved Retrieval Method for Multi-Transaction Mode Consortium Blockchain

Tu, Zhang, Chen, Weise, Zou
2020 Electronics  
How to reduce the retrieval time has been a hot issue in blockchain research. This paper proposes a fast retrieval method for the Multi-Transaction Mode Consortium Blockchain (MTMCB).  ...  On this basis, in order to meet the needs of rapid retrieval in large-scale systems, an improved retrieval algorithm based on a B+-tree data structure is proposed.  ...  Acknowledgments: Weise acknowledges support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61673359 and the Hefei Specially Recruited Foreign Expert support.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9020296 fatcat:sujqjsa6undflazqbsen5ajrn4

Scaling Blockchains: A Comprehensive Survey

Abdelatif Hafid, Abdelhakim Senhaji Hafid, Mustapha Samih
2020 IEEE Access  
While blockchain is a linked list of blocks, DAG is a tree, branching out from one transaction to another, and so on.  ...  The big block increases throughput and reduces transactions fees. 2) Merkelized Abstract Syntax Trees (MAST) MASTs combine Merkle Trees ( Figure 5 ) and Abstract Syntax Trees (ASTs) [60] , [109] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3007251 fatcat:72oattr4dzfzjoxfe2vvqtvuna

Blockchain Technology Consensus Algorithms and Applications: A Survey

Samar Alsaqqa, Sufyan Almajali
2020 International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies  
It has become one of the popular techniques for various transactions and applications in many different areas such as economy, business, and government.  ...  This survey highlights the latest studies in blockchain and consensus algorithms. The study covers the most recent blockchain applications in various domains and sectors.  ...  Blockchain technology used in supply chain management to put the transaction in decentralized form, all distribution chain transactions are easily recorded and monitored, this minimizes the chance to errors  ... 
doi:10.3991/ijim.v14i15.15893 fatcat:tqcjqol5vfds5najefiamvxeb4

A Fast Algorithm for Liquid Voting on Blockchain

Xiaoping ZHOU, Peng LI, Yulong ZENG, Xuepeng FAN, Peng LIU, Toshiaki MIYAZAKI
2021 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
As the blockchain technology can well share and reuse the resources, we study a model of liquid voting on blockchain and propose a fast algorithm, named Flash, to eliminate the restriction.  ...  The key idea behind our algorithm is to shift some on-chain process to off-chain. In detail, we first construct a Merkle tree offchain which contains all voters' properties.  ...  In order to make the liquid voting on blockchain practical without any restriction to voters, we propose a fast algorithm to guarantee that the gas fee of the voting transaction on blockchain through Ethereum  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.2020bdp0001 fatcat:7vlabx2uwbd3zgfmfi3g4h6dou

Performance-Based Analysis of Blockchain Scalability Metric

Jyoti Yadav, Ranjana Shevkar
2021 Tehnički glasnik  
, Layer 1 solutions are based on the consensus algorithms and data structure, and Layer 2 solutions aims to decrease the load of the primary chain by implementing solutions outside the chain.  ...  Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, are widely known applications of blockchain technology, have drawn much attention and are largely recognized in recent years.  ...  Two-way peg, child chains and Merkleized Interval tree are implemented in side chain solutions that results in very low transaction fee while increasing the throughput.  ... 
doi:10.31803/tg-20210205103310 fatcat:jpg36w5tvngepbmtge4gplug54

Verifiable Smart Contract Portability [article]

Martin Westerkamp
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Hereby, lock in effects originating from isolated data storage and central authorities are mitigated. Yet, smart contracts deployed to a ledger generate dependencies on the underlying blockchain.  ...  To avoid a novel form of lock in effect towards a host blockchain, we introduce a concept for smart contract portability that permits any user to migrate contract logic and state between blockchains in  ...  Each account maintains its own state that is stored in a Merkle Patricia Tree (trie) for fast and secure verifiability (cf. Section II-B).  ... 
arXiv:1902.03868v1 fatcat:gw45op7sxzdpxppxdijrx7r52e

OVERVIEW OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

Harsh Sheth, Janvi Dattani
2019 Asian journal of convergence in technology  
In this paper we will provide an overview on how blockchain works, types of blockchain, and a short overview of different blockchain platforms.  ...  The cryptocurrency may or may not be enthralling in the future but role of blockchain technology in various fields of finance and non-finance sectors should not be underestimated.  ...  The transaction which are in a block are in stored in a data structure called Merkle tree.  ... 
doi:10.33130/ajct.2019v05i01.013 fatcat:vvxbhx4fdfh5teq5b4brdy54b4

Improving Agricultural Product Traceability Using Blockchain

Qi Yao, Huajun Zhang
2022 Sensors  
To solve the above problems, we propose a trusted agricultural product traceability system based on the Ethereum blockchain in this paper.  ...  Additionally, we propose a data privacy protection solution based on some cryptographic primitives and the Merkle Tree that can avoid enterprise privacy and sensitive data leakage.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s22093388 pmid:35591077 pmcid:PMC9103666 fatcat:24su2r7yqzev3d75u73zu5cw6e

Implementation of High-Performance Blockchain Network Based on Cross-Chain Technology for IoT Applications

Ting Lin, Xu Yang, Taoyi Wang, Tu Peng, Feng Xu, Shengxiong Lao, Siyuan Ma, Hanfeng Wang, Wenjiang Hao
2020 Sensors  
However, some problems remain in IoT before it can be applied in a large scale. Blockchain, which has become a hot research topic in recent years, may be one of the solutions.  ...  After investigation of the current blockchain consensus algorithm and blockchain architecture, we propose: (1) an improved blockchain consensus algorithm, which is implemented based on the mortgage model  ...  The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s20113268 pmid:32521762 fatcat:iqy5zdtoszfkjnyhbkugf7g6zy

Directed Acyclic Graph-based Distributed Ledgers – An Evolutionary Perspective

2019 International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology  
In this paper, we analyse some of the Distributed Ledger Technologies that use DAGs and have shown marked improved in transaction performance without weakening security.  ...  Blockchain platforms like Bitcoin and Ethereum have introduced a distributed and decentralized cryptocurrency system with no third-party intermediation required.  ...  As such, instead of having only one block added linearly at a time, more than one block can be added to the blockchain in the form of trees.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijeat.a1970.109119 fatcat:2otqix2g6vg73etqk3leiik7cq
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