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On Reliability Analysis of Forward Loop Forward Hop Networks [chapter]

Soumen Maity, S. Ramsundar
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A common technique to improve the reliability of loop (or ring) networks is by introducing link redundancy; that is, by providing several alternative paths for communication between pairs of nodes.  ...  Also the bounds on the size of the problems guaranteed to be solved in the presence of a given number of faults in the network are derived.  ...  Reliability is a severe problem in single-loop networks; any single node or link failure can disrupt communication. A way to provide higher reliability in loop networks is to introduce redundancy.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11951957_13 fatcat:knxbkgd7p5e25muyzgjqnzytoq

Optimal loop topologies for distributed systems

C. S. Raghavendra, M. Gerla
1981 Proceedings of the seventh symposium on Data communications - SIGCOMM '81  
We show that this network is optimal in terms of hop distance between nodes, delay, throughput, and terminal reliability.  ...  The effect of node and link failures on network performance is also considered.  ...  We present the analysis of the optimal network and derive closed form expressions for maximum number of hops, average number of hops, and throughput.  ... 
doi:10.1145/800081.802677 dblp:conf/sigcomm/RaghavendraG81 fatcat:wqz53mu6irdstpa4vqqktzzwwm

Optimal loop topologies for distributed systems

C. S. Raghavendra, M. Gerla
1981 Computer communication review  
We show that this network is optimal in terms of hop distance between nodes, delay, throughput, and terminal reliability.  ...  The effect of node and link failures on network performance is also considered. failure partitions the network.  ...  Effect of a Node Failure on Maximum No. of Hops A useful measure of fault-tolerance is to compute the terminal pair reliabilities. We consider two farthest nodes for terminal reliability analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1013879.802677 fatcat:rohf6drzzbaznkvyy7pjyf5a2y

Reliable Loop Topologies for Large Local Computer Networks

Raghavendra, Gerla, Avizienis
1985 IEEE transactions on computers  
This network is based on forward loop backward hop topology, with a -loop in the forward direction connecting all the neighboring nodes, and a backward loop connecting nodes that are separated by a distance  ...  It is shown that this topology is optimal, among this class of double-loop networks, in terms of diameter, average hop distance, processing overhead, delay, throughput, and reliability.  ...  We refer to this class of double-loop networks as forward loop backward hop (FLBH) networks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.1985.1676514 fatcat:5xoifmtbsbh57icip6e66jjc6q

Path Splicing: Reliable Connectivity with Rapid Recovery

Murtaza Motiwala, Nick Feamster, Santosh S. Vempala
2007 ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks  
Our evaluation of path splicing on realistic ISP topologies demonstrates a dramatic increase in reliability that approaches the best possible using only a small number of slices and for only a small increase  ...  A few additional bits in packet headers give end systems access to a large number of paths. By changing these bits, nodes can redirect traffic without detailed knowledge of network paths.  ...  Two-hop loops occurred more frequently (about one per 100 trials for k = 2, and about one in ten trials for higher values of k).  ... 
dblp:conf/hotnets/MotiwalaFV07 fatcat:qkk2qjso55bpnhvexghgugcnmq

An Efficient Multipath Routing Algorithm

Hai-jun GENG
2018 DEStech Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering  
Theoretical analysis indicates that the time complexity of ERPISPF is less than that of constructing a shortest path tree.  ...  routing protection algorithm based on i-SPF (ERPISPF).  ...  Since these applications are more sensitive to network delay, which impose more strict requirements on network reliability. However, network failures are common in the Internet.  ... 
doi:10.12783/dtcse/cmee2017/19982 fatcat:yhxnzk747fgdxamr54ptzfriam

A highly reliable multi-path routing scheme forad hocwireless networks

Fei Dai, Jie Wu*
2005 International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems  
The proposed routing mechanism, called proactive route maintenance (PRM), is used to replace the naive route mechanism in existing reactive (on-demand) routing protocols to enhance route reliability and  ...  A freshness-based mechanism similar to those in DSDV and AODV is used to ensure loop freedom.  ...  Diffusion computation relies on the reliable hopto-hop coordination, which is costly in ad hoc networks.  ... 
doi:10.1080/17445760500095035 fatcat:ejylzvxdkbgoxoi7uqz2u2xgoi

Modular Design of Jointly Optimal Controllers and Forwarding Policies for Wireless Control

Burak Demirel, Zhenhua Zou, Pablo Soldati, Mikael Johansson
2014 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control  
We consider the joint design of forwarding policies and controllers for wireless control loops where sensor measurements are sent over an unreliable multi-hop wireless network to the controller node.  ...  For fixed sampling rate of the control loop, the co-design problem separates into two well-defined and independent subproblems: transmission scheduling for maximizing the delay-constrained reliability  ...  Several recent works [21, 15] study the problem of providing reliable real-time communications over multi-hop network.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tac.2014.2351972 fatcat:jv67olwl7nbtho3tzbecchzr6e

Flowroute

Amogh Dhamdhere, Lee Breslau, Nicholas Duffield, Cheng Ee, Alexandre Gerber, Carsten Lund, Subhabrata Sen
2010 Proceedings of the 10th annual conference on Internet measurement - IMC '10  
We design FlowRoute, a tool based on passive data plane measurements that we use in conjunction with control plane monitors for offline debugging and analysis of forwarding table dynamics.  ...  We detect interesting behavior such as delayed forwarding table updates and routing loops due to buggy routers -confirmed by network operators -that are not detectable using traditional control plane monitors  ...  Our analysis focused on loops between adjacent routers; it can be easily extended to loops involving three or more routers.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1879141.1879183 dblp:conf/imc/DhamdhereBDEGLS10 fatcat:eeqpkhmryvd43adgfyawh7jaee

Recursive Loop-Free Alternates for full protection against transient link failures

Suksant Sae Lor, Redouane Ali, Raul Landa, Miguel Rio
2010 The IEEE symposium on Computers and Communications  
If a failure occurs, the detecting node determines the number of recursions, which indicates the number of times packets must be forwarded along the alternate next hops to bypass the failed link.  ...  The technique consists of a backup path calculation with corresponding re-routing scheme based on the Loop-Free Condition (LFC) as defined in the basic specification for IP Fast Re-Route (IPFRR).  ...  LOOP-FREE RE-ROUTING The concept of fast re-route in IP networks is not new. Several techniques have been proposed based on the IPFRR framework.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iscc.2010.5546797 dblp:conf/iscc/LorALR10 fatcat:mmbqbtjgb5bklfhomf5hjh3oiq

Low power, low delay: Opportunistic routing meets duty cycling

Olaf Landsiedel, Euhanna Ghadimi, Simon Duquennoy, Mikael Johansson
2012 2012 ACM/IEEE 11th International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN)  
Traditionally, routing in wireless sensor networks consists of two steps: First, the routing protocol selects a next hop, and, second, the MAC protocol waits for the intended destination to wake up and  ...  Our results show that ORW reduces radio duty-cycles on average by 50% (up to 90% on individual nodes) and delays by 30% to 90% when compared to the state of the art.  ...  Hamad Alizai, Klaus Wehrle, et al. for the joint work on BRE [1] , showing that highly adaptive approaches can be practical.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ipsn.2012.6920956 fatcat:uyxmm4u4snahnkaaqartqcilny

A metric for opportunistic routing in duty cycled wireless sensor networks

Euhanna Ghadimi, Olaf Landsiedel, Pablo Soldati, Mikael Johansson
2012 2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON)  
We devise distributed algorithms that find the EDC-optimal forwarding, i.e. the optimal subset of neighbors that each node should permit to forward its packets.  ...  The method is based on a new metric, EDC, that reflects the expected number of duty cycled wakeups that are required to successfully deliver a packet from source to destination.  ...  Hence, in EDC metric, the probability that node j with reliability p i j being forwarder is Number of forwarders Expected one hop forwarding delay p i j ∑ j∈F i p i j .  ... 
doi:10.1109/secon.2012.6275795 dblp:conf/secon/GhadimiLSJ12 fatcat:biwa5wb5jnc5xeo7zsdu4ojxqq

Low power, low delay

Olaf Landsiedel, Euhanna Ghadimi, Simon Duquennoy, Mikael Johansson
2012 Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks - IPSN '12  
Traditionally, routing in wireless sensor networks consists of two steps: First, the routing protocol selects a next hop, and, second, the MAC protocol waits for the intended destination to wake up and  ...  Our results show that ORW reduces radio duty-cycles on average by 50% (up to 90% on individual nodes) and delays by 30% to 90% when compared to the state of the art.  ...  Hamad Alizai, Klaus Wehrle, et al. for the joint work on BRE [1] , showing that highly adaptive approaches can be practical.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2185677.2185731 dblp:conf/ipsn/LandsiedelGDJ12 fatcat:f6bkekryhnfpbhmvp4md247nhu

Energy based reliable multicast routing protocol for packet forwarding in MANET

S. Gopinath, N. Nagarajan
2015 Journal of Applied Research and Technology  
Mobile Ad hoc Network consists of mobile nodes without any assisting infrastructure. Mobility of nodes causes network partition. This leads to heavy overhead and less packet forwarding ratio.  ...  A multicast backbone is constructed to achieve more stability based on node familiarity and trustable loop.  ...  The forwarders list is always updated in hop by hop fashion and its size depends on number of forwarding neighbor nodes.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jart.2015.07.003 fatcat:q7dd75d5kfeijfar3salspqe7a

Secure Position-Based Routing for VANETs

Charles Harsch, Andreas Festag, Panos Papadimitratos
2007 Vehicular Technology Conference-Fall (VTC-FALL), Proceedings, IEEE  
We integrate security mechanisms to protect the position-based routing functionality and services (beaconing, multi-hop forwarding, and geo-location discovery), and enhance the network robustness.  ...  So far, the security of VC applications has mostly drawn the attention of research efforts, while comprehensive solutions to protect the network operation have not been developed.  ...  Based on the analysis, we design a security scheme that protects the PBR services, such as the exchange of nodes coordinates, multi-hop (unicast and broadcast) communication, and the correctness of the  ... 
doi:10.1109/vetecf.2007.22 dblp:conf/vtc/HarschFP07 fatcat:66govsj5vna7rimo6owxa24eve
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