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On Reducing the Number of Visual Words in the Bag-of-Features Representation [article]

Giuseppe Amato, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio Gennaro
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we propose and compare various techniques to reduce the number of words describing an image to improve efficiency and we study the effects of this reduction on effectiveness in landmark  ...  The state-of-the-art algorithms for large visual content recognition and content based similarity search today use the "Bag of Features" (BoF) or "Bag of Words" (BoW) approach.  ...  Figure 6 : 6 Average search time with respect to the average number of distinct words per image obtained reducing the visual words on the query and on query and dataset http://www.alinari.it  ... 
arXiv:1604.04142v1 fatcat:kgmcgxrc7bdh7g22r6ps5ospgy

Indoor Scene Classification Based on the Bag-of-Words Model of Local Feature Information Gain

Rong WANG, Zhiliang WANG, Xirong MA
2013 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
The experimental results show that not only the performance is improved but also the computation is reduced. Consequently this method out performs the state-of-the-art approach.  ...  For the problem of Indoor Home Scene Classification, this paper proposes the BOW Model of Local Feature Information Gain.  ...  And the number of the visual words in visual dictionary has a strong impact on the classification performance.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e96.d.984 fatcat:am4iblxdenfslmm7a55ybkig4u

Medical image retrieval using bag of meaningful visual words

Antonio Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Alba García Seco de Herrera, Henning Müller
2013 Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Multimedia indexing and information retrieval for healthcare - MIIRH '13  
In this work a visual vocabulary pruning technique is presented. It enormously reduces the amount of required words to describe a medical image dataset with no significant effect on the accuracy.  ...  The bag-of-visual-words approach is a widely used technique that tries to shorten the semantic gap by learning meaningful features from the dataset and describing documents and images in terms of the histogram  ...  This work was partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (FNS) in the MANY2 project (205320-141300), the EU 7 th Framework Program under grant agreements 257528 (KHRESMOI) and 258191  ... 
doi:10.1145/2505323.2505336 dblp:conf/mm/RodriguezHM13 fatcat:akns54zeuvbi7k6bvbbv2nrukm

Distance Matrix Based Keypoint Selection for Bag-of-Visual Words Model on Image Classification

Catur Supriyanto, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Hanung Nugroho, Teguh Adji, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Universitas Gadjah Mada
2020 International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems  
DMKS also produces a smaller number of representative keypoints, therefore DMKS can reduce the time-consuming of visual words generation more effectively in BoVW model.  ...  A large number of keypoints lead to high computational costs of visual words generation.  ...  Therefore, the number of visual words depend on the number of clusters. A problem arises when many keypoints are extracted in each image.  ... 
doi:10.22266/ijies2020.0630.31 fatcat:mfthcfkbsnaqvniaatcjlkl26m

Semantically similar visual words discovery to facilitate visual invariance

Sutasinee Chimlek, Kraisak Kesorn, Punpiti Piamsa-nga, Stefan Poslad
2010 2010 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo  
A major limitation of many image classification and retrieval systems is that they only rely on the visual structure within images.  ...  First, a novel approach for visual words construction is presented which takes the spatial information of keypoints into account in order to enhance the quality of visual words generated from extracted  ...  The running time of one iteration is O(kND 2 ), where k is the number of clusters, N is the number of visual content samples, and D is the number of visual words.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icme.2010.5582604 dblp:conf/icmcs/ChimlekKPP10 fatcat:3bx7znbse5b2xenqpjfrzhowzy

Reducing Retroactive Interference through the Use of Different Encoding Techniques: An Exploration of Pre-Test/Post-Test Analyses

John McClure Cumming, Michael A. De Miranda
2012 International Journal of Higher Education  
Participants who encoded one list visually and one list verbally retained more words on final recall from list one, than participants who encoded both list the same way.  ...  Words can be organized by way of encoding (verbally and visually). Interference occurs when two lists are encoded the same way; therefore, encoding two lists in different ways reduces RI.  ...  Each participant received a piece of lined paper that was labeled with the number one at the bottom right of the page. This procedure along with the word lists stayed constant for each condition.  ... 
doi:10.5430/ijhe.v1n1p22 fatcat:vxouro3qb5h2jcfoa73xvsu7pq

Approaches to visualizing big text data at the stage of collection and pre-processing

E.A. Makarova, D.G. Lagerev, F.Y. Lozbinev
2019 Scientific Visualization  
Also, a method of visualization of n-gram vector representation models (word embedding) is proposed.  ...  On the basis of the conducted research, a part of a software package was implemented, which is responsible for creating interactive visualizations in a browser and interoperating with them.  ...  This allowed not only to reduce the number of words that came to the analysis of the expert and, accordingly, to reduce his time, but also to increase the emphasis on frequently occurring topics.  ... 
doi:10.26583/sv.11.4.02 fatcat:s4yfcdddrrd7lo47fvz6aqo5by

The Selection of Useful Visual Words for Class-Imbalanced Data in Image Classification

Sutasinee Chimlek, Part Pramokchon, Punpiti Piamsa-nga
2016 International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)  
Therefore, the selection of significant visual words for multi-view images in each class is an essential method to reduce the size of BOVW while retaining the high performance of image classification.  ...  <span>The bag of visual words (BOVW) has recently been used for image classification in large datasets.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is supported by a grant from the Kasetsart University Research and Development Instituteand Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand.  ... 
doi:10.11591/ijece.v6i1.8633 fatcat:hktz6zoflfdj3c4wmcsutrakwe

Psychophysics of reading—XVI. The visual span in normal and low vision

Gordon E. Legge, Sonia J. Ahn, Timothy S. Klitz, Andrew Luebker
1997 Vision Research  
RSVP measurements for six out of seven low-vision subjects revealed a strong dependence of reading time on word length, as expected from reduced visual spans. © 1997  ...  The visual span in reading is the number of characters that can be recognized at a glance.  ...  Acknowledgements--This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grant EY02934 to Gordon E. Legge. We thank Steve Mansfield and Susana Chung for comments on the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0042-6989(97)00017-5 pmid:9274784 fatcat:rkvlsrqllzez3endeqt7egi4qq

Transitive Closure Based Visual Words for Point Matching in Video Sequence

Srikrishna Bhat K K, Marie-Odile Berger, Gilles Simon, Frederic Sur
2010 2010 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition  
Each one of our visual words is represented by a set of feature vectors which is obtained by performing transitive closure operation on SIFT features.  ...  The robustness of our visual word representation is demonstrated for Structure from Motion (SfM) and location identification in video images.  ...  To reduce the number of comparisons, we incrementally build range reducing tree structure which is similar to that of M-tree [4] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpr.2010.807 dblp:conf/icpr/BhatBSS10 fatcat:fh7hgvhm6vfqnjk3iobp6scasa

Analysis of Using Metric Access Methods for Visual Search of Objects in Video Databases

Henrique Batista Silva, Zenilton Kleber Gonçalves Patrocínio, Silvio Jamil Ferzoli Guimarães
2014 Revista de Informática Teórica e Aplicada  
Vector quantizing these region descriptors provides a visual analogy of a word -a visual word.  ...  Those words are grouped into a visual vocabulary which is used to index all key frames from the video database.  ...  Finally, those two sets of visual words are merged into one visual vocabulary.  ... 
doi:10.22456/2175-2745.37349 fatcat:zjaglcwvdrgipfibnxaivo64oq

Hazardous sign detection for safety applications in traffic monitoring

Wanda Benesova, Michal Kottman, Oliver Sidla, Juha Röning, David P. Casasent
2012 Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXIX: Algorithms and Techniques  
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by the grant KEGA 244-022STU-4/2010.  ...  The number of relevant visual words (shown in Figure 2 ) is growing in the codebooks 200-1000 (190/200, 341/500, 425/1000), but further the number of relevant visual words in the code-books 1000-5000  ...  In following sections, we will refer to relevant visual words as those visual words that occur on any of the templates of a hazardous sign.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.905813 fatcat:tywovgablncgpedhol7asmilsi

Visual Semantic Based 3D Video Retrieval System Using HDFS

C Ranjith Kumar, S Suguna
2016 Data mining and knowledge discovery  
Using 3D video dataset, we future the performance of our proposed system which can pan out that the proposed work gives meticulous result and also reduce the time intricacy.  ...  This paper brings out a neoteric frame of reference for visual semantic based 3d video search and retrieval applications.  ...  To overcome the noise problem, we have assigned numbers for each visual word. Unique numbers are assigned to unique visual words and similar numbers are assigned for similar visual words.  ... 
pmid:28003793 pmcid:PMC5166989 fatcat:ztprwaoxoze2dktuoej7vwnbvi

A Visual Words Selection Strategy for Pedestrian Detection and Analysis of the Feature Points Distribution

Xingguo Zhang, Guoyue Chen, Kazuki Saruta, Yuki Terata
2015 Journal of Computers  
An effective and efficient visual word selection method based on Bag-of-features (BoF), which can be applied to the pedestrian detection problem, is proposed in this paper.  ...  More-over, the time required for learning and detection can be reduced by approximately 50%, with no significant degradation in precision, using the proposed method, even if only 40% of the visual words  ...  the frequency of x'th visual word on j'th non-pedestrian image.  ... 
doi:10.17706/jcp.10.1.57-67 fatcat:fn52f6nvmnfehluzidxmt2pnvy

Visual Semantic Based 3D Video Retrieval System Using HDFS

2016 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems  
Using 3D video dataset, we fiture the performance of our proposed system which can pan out that the proposed work gives meticulous result and also reduce the time intricacy.  ...  This paper brings out a neoteric frame of reference for visual semantic based 3d video search and retrieval applications.  ...  Hence, we reduce the problem of noise which in turn reduces the computation time for the construction of visual words.  ... 
doi:10.3837/tiis.2016.08.021 fatcat:kmu7zx5vdvh4pk6g3pe3voubcm
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