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On Reducing the Number of Visual Words in the Bag-of-Features Representation [article]

Giuseppe Amato, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio Gennaro
2016 arXiv   pre-print
The state-of-the-art algorithms for large visual content recognition and content based similarity search today use the "Bag of Features" (BoF) or "Bag of Words" (BoW) approach.  ...  In this paper, we propose and compare various techniques to reduce the number of words describing an image to improve efficiency and we study the effects of this reduction on effectiveness in landmark  ...  Figure 6 : 6 Average search time with respect to the average number of distinct words per image obtained reducing the visual words on the query and on query and dataset http://www.alinari.it  ... 
arXiv:1604.04142v1 fatcat:kgmcgxrc7bdh7g22r6ps5ospgy

Integrating visual words as bunch of n-grams for effective biomedical image classification

Glauco V. Pedrosa, Md Mahmudur Rahman, Sameer K. Antani, Dina Demner-Fushman, L. Rodney Long, Agma J. M. Traina
2014 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision  
The Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) has been frequently used in the classification of image data.  ...  We have developed a novel technique to incorporate spatial information of visual words based on the n-grams representation.  ...  The results demonstrate the importance of contextual relations of local features in the Bag-of-Visual-Words representation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/wacv.2014.6836069 dblp:conf/wacv/PedrosaRADLT14 fatcat:obsoqqitcfar3ojuhvvyc4pkym

From Bag-of-Visual-Words to Bag-of-Visual-Phrases Using n-Grams

Glauco V. Pedrosa, Agma J.M. Traina
2013 2013 XXVI Conference on Graphics, Patterns and Images  
We introduce the use of n-grams for image representation, based on the idea of "Bag-of-Visual-Phrases".  ...  The image representation is given by the frequency of each visual word in the image, as a similar representation used in textual documents.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the financial support of FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES and INCT INCod.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sibgrapi.2013.49 dblp:conf/sibgrapi/PedrosaT13 fatcat:3vxcuk66kfcmbgo2ycw5qjc734

Visual Character N-Grams for Classification and Retrieval of Radiological Images

Pradnya Kulkarni, Andrew Stranieri, Siddhivinayak Kulkarni, Julien Ugon, Manish Mittal
2014 The International Journal of Multimedia & Its Applications  
We propose the use of visual character n-gram model for representation of image for classification and retrieval purposes.  ...  We argue that Classifying regions of interests would reduce the number of comparisons necessary for finding similar images from the database and hence would reduce the time required for retrieval of past  ...  Low level image features such as colour, texture and Shape have been used in the past. One of the state of the art techniques for image representation is bag-of-visual-words.  ... 
doi:10.5121/ijma.2014.6204 fatcat:avwsnclfpzd5ldyiihufrjwwvu

Effective image database search via dimensionality reduction

Anders Bjorholm Dahl, Henrik Aanaes
2008 2008 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops  
Image search using the bag-of-words image representation is investigated further in this paper.  ...  In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the technique. To do that we substantially reduce the dimensionality of the features by the use of PCA and addition of color.  ...  We also thank Henrik Stewénius for helpful references and for supplying benchmark data for the experiments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvprw.2008.4562957 dblp:conf/cvpr/DahlA08 fatcat:ow62g2pnk5grjfe5e5swtcgmsm

Incorporating Contextual Information into Bag-of-Visual-Words Framework for Effective Object Categorization

Shuang BAI, Tetsuya MATSUMOTO, Yoshinori TAKEUCHI, Hiroaki KUDO, Noboru OHNISHI
2012 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
In this paper, we propose to incorporate patch-level contextual information into bag of visual words for reducing the ambiguity mentioned above.  ...  Bag of visual words is a promising approach to object categorization.  ...  In this figure, the number on the x-axis is the number of fine scale visual words of the codebook, which is two times the number of coarse scale visual words.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e95.d.3060 fatcat:zw3flojcdvgblfypzzmot5akom

Human Action Classification Using N-Grams Visual Vocabulary [chapter]

Ruber Hernández-García, Edel García-Reyes, Julián Ramos-Cózar, Nicolás Guil
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Finally, a second visual vocabulary based on n-grams is used for classification. This combines the representational power of graphs with the efficiency of the bag-of-words representation.  ...  First, an optimal vocabulary is created without a preliminary number of visual words, which is a known problem of the K-means method.  ...  However, one of the major challenges in BoW is the generation of visual vocabulary. The creation of visual vocabulary requires clustering many features descriptions detected in the training videos.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12568-8_39 fatcat:cuclkatjpzgivapd2xdhqkpatu

Image Classification using Frequent Itemset Mining

Vyoma Patel, G. J. Sahani
2015 International Journal of Computer Applications  
Applying FIM on the bag-of-words representation the new method called bag-of-FLHs [3, 4, 5] .  ...  Fig 1: Proposed Work Many Image Representation techniques were studied in as survey done in [5] . Bag-of-visual words [11] are a standard method for image representation.  ... 
doi:10.5120/21614-4880 fatcat:d5l5rjhrmjfpjllmsrze4sitiy

Discriminative compact pyramids for object and scene recognition

Noha M. Elfiky, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Joost van de Weijer, Jordi Gonzàlez
2012 Pattern Recognition  
Moreover, we investigate the optimal combination of multiple features in the context of our compact pyramid representation.  ...  Spatial pyramids have been successfully applied to incorporating spatial information into bag-of-words based image representation.  ...  It is important to note that we consider the number of words for the spatial pyramid representation to be equal to the number of words used for the visual vocabulary times the number of subregions in the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2011.09.020 fatcat:kyngtkmxhzccbh2kcasm4b2czm

Fusion of tf.idf weighted bag of visual features for image classification

Christophe Moulin, Cecile Barat, Christophe Ducottet
2010 2010 International Workshop on Content Based Multimedia Indexing (CBMI)  
Image representation using bag of visual words approach is commonly used in image classification. Features are extracted from images and clustered into a visual vocabulary.  ...  In this paper, our contribution is twofold. First, we propose a suitable Term-Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency weighting scheme to characterize the importance of visual words.  ...  by the French National Research Agency (ANR).  ... 
doi:10.1109/cbmi.2010.5529901 dblp:conf/cbmi/MoulinBD10 fatcat:jgkqrdgd5rfr5gutwoa2c2ombm

A Novel Image Classification Algorithm Based on Graph Theory

SHU-JIAN SHI
2019 DEStech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research  
In this paper the bag-of-words model is applied to image classification and improves the existing problems of the traditional bag-of-words method.  ...  The visual dictionary can be more accurate to describe the image features, which can reduce the influence of background information and other interference information.  ...  In this way, the influence of feature points in the background region on visual vocabulary and image histogram generation can be reduced.  ... 
doi:10.12783/dtetr/icicr2019/30571 fatcat:rpz4chrfr5hd7cvo63iakdjswm

Bag-of-Words and Region-Based Feature Representations in Object Categorization: A Comparative Study

Chih-Fong Tsai
2019 Journal of Computers  
In the literature, feature representation can be broadly classified into block/region-based and bag-of-words (BoW) features.  ...  The aim of object categorization is to find a given object in an image and the performance of object categorization heavily depends on the extracted features as the image descriptor.  ...  Then, the visual-word vector of an image contains the presence or absence information of each visual word in the image, e.g. the number of keypoints in the corresponding cluster, i.e. visual word.  ... 
doi:10.17706/jcp.14.2.93-100 fatcat:vwpv5wri4bf5jmuditytqwasb4

Evaluating bag-of-visual-words representations in scene classification

Jun Yang, Yu-Gang Jiang, Alexander G. Hauptmann, Chong-Wah Ngo
2007 Proceedings of the international workshop on Workshop on multimedia information retrieval - MIR '07  
Given the analogy between this representation and the bag-of-words representation of text documents, we apply techniques used in text categorization, including term weighting, stop word removal, feature  ...  Based on keypoints extracted as salient image patches, an image can be described as a "bag of visual words" and this representation has been used in scene classification.  ...  This visual-word image representation is analogous to the bag-of-words representation of text documents in terms of form and semantics.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1290082.1290111 dblp:conf/mir/YangJHN07 fatcat:ov3j6mttdjcdhdeqltr3boepfa

Visual Place Recognition with Repetitive Structures

Akihiko Torii, Josef Sivic, Toma Pajdla, Masatoshi Okutomi
2013 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition  
It is based on robust detection of repeated image structures and a simple modification of weights in the bag-of-visual-word model.  ...  Even more importantly, they violate the feature independence assumed in the bag-of-visual-words representation which often leads to over-counting evidence and significant degradation of retrieval performance  ...  This is achieved by robustly detecting repeated patterns of visual words in images, and adjusting their weights in the bag-of-visual-word representation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvpr.2013.119 dblp:conf/cvpr/ToriiSPO13 fatcat:rxq6nhg55rgy5h24sct2t3scru

Bag-of-Features HMMs for Segmentation-Free Word Spotting in Handwritten Documents

Leonard Rothacker, Marcal Rusinol, Gernot A. Fink
2013 2013 12th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition  
Therefore they can be considered as a variant of discrete HMMs allowing to model the observation of a number of features at a point in time.  ...  We propose to use Bag-of-Features HMMs in a patch-based segmentation-free framework that are estimated by a single sample. Bag-of-Features HMMs use statistics of local image feature representatives.  ...  In [8] it was shown that Bag-of-Features representations can successfully be applied in a segmentation-free word spotting scenario. As for visual recognition in general (cf.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdar.2013.264 dblp:conf/icdar/RothackerRF13 fatcat:loh2x2squzb33bpskc7k5kk6ja
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