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Languages for Smart and Computable Contracts [article]

Christopher D. Clack
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Here we provide a perspective on some of the key issues, explore some current research directions, and explain the importance of language design in the development of reliable Smart Contracts, including  ...  Smart Contracts use computer technology to automate the performance of aspects of commercial agreements.  ...  Legal statement on cryptoassets and smart contracts.  ... 
arXiv:2104.03764v1 fatcat:r5vm7glsl5cozi37wdtgkqhc7i

A Survey of Smart Contract Formal Specification and Verification [article]

Palina Tolmach, Yi Li, Shang-Wei Lin, Yang Liu, Zengxiang Li
2021 arXiv   pre-print
A smart contract is a computer program which allows users to automate their actions on the blockchain platform.  ...  Yet, the vast majority of smart contracts lack any kind of formal specification, which is essential for establishing their correctness.  ...  In the presented work we do not claim to provide a complete set of properties that smart contracts are supposed to meet.  ... 
arXiv:2008.02712v3 fatcat:ltkckg4eivdhtppaebnlis3tci

Violable Contracts and Governance for Blockchain Applications [article]

Munindar P. Singh, Amit K. Chopra
2018 arXiv   pre-print
A centerpiece of our vision is the notion of a declarative, violable contract in contradistinction to smart contracts.  ...  We examine blockchain technologies, especially smart contracts, as a platform for decentralized applications.  ...  But newer approaches, including Ethereum, ambitiously support Turing-complete languages for smart contracts that initiate transactions based on observed events.  ... 
arXiv:1801.02672v1 fatcat:v2sqtp5ahncd7fjmf2tunhbnoe

Smart Derivatives Contracts: the ISDA Master Agreement and the automation of payments and deliveries [article]

Christopher D. Clack, Ciaran McGonagle
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Smart Derivatives Contracts aim to automate many aspects of high-value contracts, including automation of the provisions of the ISDA legal documentation.  ...  levels, in terms of both the legal documentation and the workflow; we explain issues relating to how the smart contract code processes payments-related and deliveries-related events; and we discuss the  ...  Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Scott Farrell (King & Wood Mallesons) for his helpful feedback on an early draft of this paper.  ... 
arXiv:1904.01461v1 fatcat:xgyq67jr3jb5hemxqhbgn5a2ku

Implementation of Smart Contracts Using Hybrid Architectures with On- and Off-Blockchain Components [article]

Carlos Molina-Jimenez, Ioannis Sfyrakis, Ellis Solaiman, Irene Ng, Meng Weng Wong, Alexis Chun, Jon Crowcroft
2018 arXiv   pre-print
As a proof of concept, we show how a smart contract can be split and executed partially on an off-blockchain contract compliance checker and partially on the Rinkeby Ethereum network.  ...  To help cover the gap, in this paper we discuss the implementation of smart contracts on hybrid architectures.  ...  Smart contract split into on-and off-blockchain enforcement.  ... 
arXiv:1808.00093v1 fatcat:la75cuamcrhj7ocvaxy3pztphu

MOATcoin

Biagio Distefano, Nadia Pocher, Mirko Zichichi
2020 Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains for Distributed Systems  
In this paper we present MOATcoin, a gamelike experiment that enabled us to practically investigate the open issues related to the governance and legal facets of smart contract based decentralized applications  ...  Finally, we offer taxonomical remarks on the concepts of "token" and "coin" and offer an insight from a regulatory perspective.  ...  In order to mitigate this side effect we may integrate the smart contract with other legal rules, using deontic logic operators (rights, permissions).  ... 
doi:10.1145/3410699.3413798 fatcat:xvwk7mpe3behrcjcfa37bnp3oi

A formal model for ledger management systems based on contracts and temporal logic [article]

Paolo Bottoni, Anna Labella, Remo Pareschi
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In second-generation blockchains such as Ethereum the ledger is coupled with smart contracts, which enable the automation of transactions associated with agreements between the parties of a financial or  ...  The coupling of smart contracts and ledgers provides the technological background for very innovative application areas, such as Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs), Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs  ...  We thank the anonymous referees for indication on how to improve this paper.  ... 
arXiv:2109.15212v1 fatcat:t5jeciwt5vfxjlysrobpjdj5gu

Transaction design standards for the operationalisation of fairness and empowerment in proactive contracting

Maria Claudia Solarte-Vasquez, Petra Hietanen-Kunwald
2020 International and Comparative Law Review  
The scientific and professional legal community has not convened on their substance and the ways they can be achieved.  ...  This section addresses the problem revisiting and expanding the Taxonomy of Legal Usability and User Experience Factors, one of the first attempts to synthetize parametric standards for transaction design  ...  Perceptions on Self-regulation and Transaction Friendliness Relevant to Smart Contracting.  ... 
doi:10.2478/iclr-2020-0008 fatcat:f45yfc4k7bhb7murpzr6xgqkoi

A survey of challenges for runtime verification from advanced application domains (beyond software)

César Sánchez, Gerardo Schneider, Wolfgang Ahrendt, Ezio Bartocci, Domenico Bianculli, Christian Colombo, Yliés Falcone, Adrian Francalanza, Srđan Krstić, Joa̋o M. Lourenço, Dejan Nickovic, Gordon J. Pace (+4 others)
2019 Formal methods in system design  
Most of the applications in runtime verification have been focused on the dynamic analysis of software, even though there are many more potential applications to other computational devices and target  ...  In this paper we present a collection of challenges for runtime verification extracted from concrete application domains, focusing on the difficulties that must be overcome to tackle these specific challenges  ...  The authors would like to thank Fonenantsoa Maurica and Pablo Picazo-Sanchez for their feedback on parts of a preliminary version of this document, and the anonymous reviewers for the constructive corrections  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10703-019-00337-w fatcat:6vu5odqyjjbkvf255bsxcchane

Smart design rules for smart grids: analysing local smart grid development through an empirico-legal institutional lens

Imke Lammers, Michiel A. Heldeweg
2016 Energy, Sustainability and Society  
In the analysis we addressed ownership arrangements and contracts and identified barriers and opportunities for realizing a local smart grid system.  ...  Data triangulation took place combining participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis.  ...  First, between January and June 2015, one of the researchers took part in six meetings of the smart grid project group, in form of moderate participant observation.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13705-016-0102-z fatcat:4vgvafivrve37or5r6hrjvqcxy

A Survey of Challenges for Runtime Verification from Advanced Application Domains (Beyond Software) [article]

César Sánchez and Gerardo Schneider and Wolfgang Ahrendt and Ezio Bartocci and Domenico Bianculli and Christian Colombo and Yliés Falcone and Adrian Francalanza and Sran Krstić and Joa̋o M. Lourenço and Dejan Nickovic and Gordon J. Pace and Jose Rufino and Julien Signoles and Dmitriy Traytel and Alexander Weiss
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Most of the applications in runtime verification have been focused on the dynamic analysis of software, even though there are many more potential applications to other computational devices and target  ...  In this paper we present a collection of challenges for runtime verification extracted from concrete application domains, focusing on the difficulties that must be overcome to tackle these specific challenges  ...  The authors would like to thank Fonenantsoa Maurica and Pablo Picazo-Sanchez for their feedback on parts of a preliminary version of this document.  ... 
arXiv:1811.06740v1 fatcat:4bxx5tvfpzez3jidsj22flibv4

VM-Flow [chapter]

Ivo J. G. dos Santos, Edmundo R. M. Madeira
2004 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing  
The CONTRACT project is co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme for RTD with project number FP6-034418.  ...  The contract is only binding on the routine inasmuch as calls observe the precondition; the routine then guarantees the post-condition on return.  ...  Contract Monitoring and Uncertainty Most approaches to contract monitoring assume omniscient, benevolent observers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/1-4020-8155-3_15 fatcat:tdnlcms72rbznjvwphoztdx37y

An empirico-legal analytical & design model for local smart energy systems: Applying the 'ILTIAD' model, combining the IAD-Framework with Institutional Legal Theory

Michiel A. Heldeweg, Imke Lammers
2019 International Journal of the Commons  
This article presents a new framework for the analysis and design of legal-governance settings for collective action challenges, particularly of local (smart) microgrids, with a focus on related local  ...  This is relevant to state of affairs analyses, but also to design-oriented analysis towards institutional change of legal settings for local smart microgrid systems.  ...  of a valid contract).  ... 
doi:10.18352/ijc.885 fatcat:ralitggmwnajtnm4oui24k2eo4

Towards declarative smart contracts

Kevin John Purnell
2022
Our investigation implemented a 'Will and Testament' as a smart contract on a custom simulator, and demonstrated improved utility by auto-generating a smart contract from a status-quo user interface with  ...  improved utility in smart contracts.  ...  Ideas for simplifying smart contract creation started to surface soon after Ethereum debuted, with the observation that blockchain/smart contract projects were complicated (Buelau 2017) , and that it  ... 
doi:10.25949/19440509.v1 fatcat:zj7vvd2vazcerde5ozis7bxb5a

Opportunities and Risks of Blockchain Technologies (Dagstuhl Seminar 17132)

Roman Beck, Christian Becker, Juho Lindman, Matti Rossi, Marc Herbstritt
2017 Dagstuhl Reports  
Start-ups and large financial players are working intensely on blockchain-based applications, making this one of the most promising drivers of financial innovation.  ...  These opportunities and challenges provided the starting point for the Dagstuhl Seminar where we analyzed and synthesized the current body of knowledge on the emerging landscape of blockchain technologies  ...  Concerning the extension of "smart contracts", one can e.g. find the following definition on the webside of www.ethereum.org: "Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.7.3.99 dblp:journals/dagstuhl-reports/BeckBLR17 fatcat:yrm7twr3bnhsppztnxg66uj27m
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