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On Negative Interference in Multilingual Models: Findings and A Meta-Learning Treatment [article]

Zirui Wang, Zachary C. Lipton, Yulia Tsvetkov
2020 arXiv   pre-print
While parameters are maximally shared to learn language-universal structures, we demonstrate that language-specific parameters do exist in multilingual models and they are a potential cause of negative  ...  meta-parameters and training them in a manner that explicitly improves shared layers' generalization on all languages.  ...  Acknowledgments We want to thank Jaime Carbonell for his support in the early stage of this project.  ... 
arXiv:2010.03017v1 fatcat:d6c5lm4lcvawll6fexjcha2mne

On Negative Interference in Multilingual Models: Findings and A Meta-Learning Treatment

Zirui Wang, Zachary C. Lipton, Yulia Tsvetkov
2020 Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)   unpublished
While parameters are maximally shared to learn language-universal structures, we demonstrate that language-specific parameters do exist in multilingual models and they are a potential cause of negative  ...  Motivated by these observations, we also present a meta-learning algorithm that obtains better cross-lingual transferability and alleviates negative interference, by adding languagespecific layers as meta-parameters  ...  Acknowledgments We want to thank Jaime Carbonell for his support on the early stage of this project.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/2020.emnlp-main.359 fatcat:m444jpleorcanawb4apoyf4hv4

The Role of Pashto (as L1) and Urdu (as L2) in English Language Learning

Ayesha Saddiqa
2018 Linguistics and Literature Review  
The participants were asked to translate sentences from Urdu to English and from Pashto to English to find interference of both Pashto and Urdu in learning the English language.  ...  Linguistic Proximity Model was used as a theoretical framework to analyze the data.  ...  The Role of Background Language Multilingualism has been promoted around the globe for a score of years, and multilinguals have been considered as having superior meta-linguistic and meta-cognitive abilities  ... 
doi:10.29145/2018/llr/040101 fatcat:tt7op7rcaveffa3nlbqvsxzjx4

A developmental approach to bilingual research: The effects of multi-language experience from early infancy to old age

Roberto Filippi, Dean D'Souza, Peter Bright
2018 International Journal of Bilingualism  
Significance/Implications Although there is a general consensus that exposure to multilingual environments does not impair cognitive development, there are still doubts on the possible beneficial advantages  ...  and neural changes associated with multi-language learning will emerge.  ...  Still today, bilingual and multilingual school children in the UK are labeled as EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils, which arguably implies a vaguely negative connotation or the categorization  ... 
doi:10.1177/1367006917749061 fatcat:ftdeyiqzznfkdcro6gugi4qr3q

Multilingual educational language policies in Switzerland and Sweden

Adrian Lundberg
2018 Language Problems and Language Planning  
This meta-analysis examines how research studies on multilingual educational policy documents on a macro-level (national/regional) in Sweden and Switzerland differ in terms of foci and how the discourses  ...  Multilingualism represents a global challenge and a goal of education in European states.  ...  Do these findings show a rather monolingual or pluralistic approach in the treatment of current educational language policies?  ... 
doi:10.1075/lplp.00005.lun fatcat:ngmd373ydzca3bur7rih55duha

Towards More Equitable Question Answering Systems: How Much More Data Do You Need? [article]

Arnab Debnath, Navid Rajabi, Fardina Fathmiul Alam, Antonios Anastasopoulos
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this project, we take a step back and study which approaches allow us to take the most advantage of existing resources in order to produce QA systems in many languages.  ...  Question answering (QA) in English has been widely explored, but multilingual datasets are relatively new, with several methods attempting to bridge the gap between high- and low-resourced languages using  ...  Most experiments were run on ARGO, 6 a research computing cluster provided by the Office of Research Computing at George Mason University, VA, and a few experiments were run on Amazon Web Services instances  ... 
arXiv:2105.14115v1 fatcat:hmljgmkq55ecvahm75sqcp7ghe

Self-Concepts in Reading and Spelling among Mono- and Multilingual Children: Extending the Bilingual Advantage

Julia Festman, John W. Schwieter
2019 Behavioral Sciences  
We argue, on a theoretical basis, that metacognition and EFs could facilitate a bilingual advantage and improve educational outcomes.  ...  A positive self-concept is related to and influences academic achievement, and the relationship between a domain-specific self-concept and achievement in the same domain is positive and strong.  ...  Acknowledgments: We would like to acknowledge Maria Windolff, Larissa Arndt, Annegret Klassert, Michael Fliesser, Jennifer Lambrecht, and all other members of the Diversity and Inclusion Research Group  ... 
doi:10.3390/bs9040039 pmid:31013920 pmcid:PMC6523248 fatcat:kh3qd4klvrhcfgecflsoq7dnlu

Insomnia and inflammation: a two hit model of depression risk and prevention

Michael R. Irwin, Dominique Piber
2018 World Psychiatry  
Bierer and M.J. Meaney for their comments and very careful review of this paper, and A. Ropes for assistance with manuscript preparation.  ...  Carmi for assistance in data extraction. They thank all authors of the included studies, especially the ones who provided additional information and data.  ...  It is easily accommodated on a dimensional continuum and could be a suitable condition for treatment, and in a recent meta-analysis there is some evidence, not yet strong, that psychological treatments  ... 
doi:10.1002/wps.20556 pmid:30229570 pmcid:PMC6127743 fatcat:d5xaoj4yhbdkbnz7iymcb7tauy

Equal Opportunity Interference: Both L1 and L2 Influence L3 Morpho-Syntactic Processing

Nawras Abbas, Tamar Degani, Anat Prior
2021 Frontiers in Psychology  
L1 interference was evident in first pass sentence reading, and marginally in offline grammaticality judgment, and L2 interference was robust across second pass reading and grammaticality judgments.  ...  Thus, the L3 morpho-syntactic structures included in the study were a mismatch with L1, a mismatch with L2, a Double mismatch, with both L1 and L2, or a no mismatch condition.  ...  Awwad for her work on stimuli development.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.673535 pmid:34122270 pmcid:PMC8192804 fatcat:f45foaaalrgclmeoa2ktapmiue

Multilingualism in a Society of the Future?

Ernst Apeltauer, Gisela Shaw
1993 European Journal of Education  
models and patterns of response which they find embodied in the monolingual population around them as well as in their parents.  ...  they learn to accept their pupils' 'family languages' as varieties of 'equal validity', while on the other hand being able to introduce this topic in a competent manner and thereby help to dismantle negative  ... 
doi:10.2307/1503759 fatcat:7476q46rvzfn5jprg3fw2jdt4i

Cross-linguistic transfer effects of verb-production therapy in two cases of multilingual aphasia

Monica I. Norvik Knoph, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Marianne Lind
2017 Aphasiology  
The dissertation, which is the first one on multilingual aphasia in Norway, investigates assessment, clinical practice and treatment, with a focus on cross-linguistic transfer and inhibition of the untreated  ...  The results corroborate theories on the nature of the verb and its role in sentence production, and provide evidence for a shared conceptual network of the languages in multilingual speakers.  ...  Acknowledgements First, we thank the participants for taking part in this study, and Ingvild Røste for conducting the treatments.  ... 
doi:10.1080/02687038.2017.1358447 fatcat:sxwgs3zxfnd33fqtgnpcidiifm

Input or intimacy

Judit Navracsics
2014 Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching  
Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s).  ...  It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.  ...  Fantini also finds that one system will dominate the other so that the child will fail to make some opposition in one language, or at least produce some sounds in a foreign way, due to interference.  ... 
doi:10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.3.6 fatcat:4egilyxmy5dkthnhqcsao5bkje

Moderation-Mediation Effects in Bilingualism and Cognitive Reserve

Roberto R. Heredia, Angélique M. Blackburn, Luis A. Vega
2020 Frontiers in Psychology  
The existing findings support bilingualism as a predictor and as a moderator.  ...  We first provide a critical review of the existing findings on bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve from moderator-mediator warranting cause-effect research conclusions.  ...  Ciéslicka and Tanja Angelovska for excellent comments and suggestions on earlier drafts.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.572555 pmid:33101142 pmcid:PMC7554512 fatcat:dnaqxql7p5hcdbj2dzhpbrz55i

What Influences Language Impairment in Bilingual Aphasia? A Meta-Analytic Review

Ekaterina Kuzmina, Mira Goral, Monica Norvik, Brendan S. Weekes
2019 Frontiers in Psychology  
One hundred and thirty cases from 65 studies were included in the present systematic review and effect sizes from 119 cases were used in the meta-analysis.  ...  The goals of this review were to provide a timely update on the increasing number of reported cases in the last decade and to offer a systematic analysis of the potentially influencing variables.  ...  There is a growing body of treatment studies that examine the effectiveness of intervention in aphasia depending on the language in which the treatment is delivered.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00445 pmid:31024369 pmcid:PMC6460996 fatcat:wifyjzobqjf6bhabteaf25nbwq

Funnelling: A New Ensemble Method for Heterogeneous Transfer Learning and its Application to Cross-Lingual Text Classification [article]

Andrea Esuli, Alejandro Moreo, Fabrizio Sebastiani
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Cross-lingual Text Classification (CLC) consists of automatically classifying, according to a common set C of classes, documents each written in one of a set of languages L, and doing so more accurately  ...  We present substantial experiments, run on publicly available multilingual text collections, in which funnelling is shown to significantly outperform a number of state-of-the-art baselines.  ...  In particular, it is in principle possible to train our meta-classi er via a learning algorithm di erent from the one used to train the base classi ers.  ... 
arXiv:1901.11459v2 fatcat:f2p3wy72wnfzdo7inxdrxg2p5a
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