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Manufacturing cheap, resilient, and stealthy opaque constructs

Christian Collberg, Clark Thomborson, Douglas Low
1998 Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages - POPL '98  
We show how to construct resilient, cheap, and stealthy opaque predicates based on the intractability of certain static analysis problems such as alias analysis.  ...  The resilience of many control-altering transformations rely on the resilience of opaque predicates.  ...  The main contribution of this paper is the insight that it is possible to base the manufacturing of resilient predicates on the intractability of static analysis problems such as the analysis of aliasing  ... 
doi:10.1145/268946.268962 dblp:conf/popl/CollbergTL98 fatcat:s4bxqbtf3zfzfanqaejmbguldm

Watermarking, tamper-proofing, and obfuscation - tools for software protection

C.S. Collberg, C. Thomborson
2002 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
AbstractÐWe identify three types of attack on the intellectual property contained in software and three corresponding technical defenses.  ...  A defense against reverse engineering is obfuscation, a process that renders software unintelligible but still functional.  ...  In [25] , we discuss two general methods for generating resilient and cheap opaque predicates that are based on the intractability of these static analysis problems.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tse.2002.1027797 fatcat:x3lechbrnrfopg5k6q6qiqnbyu

Probfuscation: An Obfuscation Approach Using Probabilistic Control Flows [chapter]

Andre Pawlowski, Moritz Contag, Thorsten Holz
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our experimental results show that our approach can be used effectively to ensure divergent traces for the same input values and it can significantly improve the resilience against dynamic analysis.  ...  An adversary can take advantage of this behavior and create multiple traces to perform analyses on the target program in order to deobfuscate it.  ...  However, instead of focusing on protecting the program against static analysis, we introduce a scheme achieving probabilistic control flow, aiming to make dynamic analysis harder.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-40667-1_9 fatcat:opilmrhgzzdpxdcw76rejnkrzm

Software watermarking

Christian Collberg, Clark Thomborson
1999 Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages - POPL '99  
In the first part of the paper we construct an informal taxonomy of software watermarking techniques. In the second part we formalize these results.  ...  'fo copy otherwise. to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.  ...  But, it is easy to break up a basic block by inserting an opaquely true predicated branch: if VT> SZ; . . . . . . 1 The construction of strong opaque predicates is discussed in [9].  ... 
doi:10.1145/292540.292569 dblp:conf/popl/CollbergT99 fatcat:t5oz5s43ybe7vgdwopjiy2inrm

Slicing Aided Design of Obfuscating Transforms

Stephen Drape, Anirban Majumdar, Clark Thomborson
2007 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2007)  
We show how we can utilise the information gained from slicing a program to aid us in manufacturing obfuscations that are more resistant to slicing.  ...  Slicing is a reverse engineering technique which aims to produce a subset of a program which is dependent on a particular program point and is used to aid in program comprehension.  ...  any opaque predicates which are usually hard to manufacture [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/icis.2007.167 dblp:conf/ACISicis/DrapeMT07 fatcat:lbuj2zg5mvczxl5l2qts6zej6y

Novel Indicators for the Quantification of Resilience in Critical Material Supply Chains, with a 2010 Rare Earth Crisis Case Study

Benjamin Sprecher, Ichiro Daigo, Wouter Spekkink, Matthijs Vos, René Kleijn, Shinsuke Murakami, Gert Jan Kramer
2017 Environmental Science and Technology  
Our method is a novel application of Event Sequence Analysis, supplemented with interviews of actors across the entire supply chain.  ...  We introduce several new resilience metrics for quantifying the resilience of critical material supply chains to disruptions and validate these metrics using the 2010 rare earth element (REE) crisis as  ...  a great deal of work on information and communication resilience 9 and supply chain and manufacturing resilience. 5, 10 Resilience is a natural fit for the study of material criticality, which deals  ... 
doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b05751 pmid:28257181 pmcid:PMC5770137 fatcat:mreq2p6vlvc6fmmxjfghnewnaa

Chameleon Building

M Mandaglio
2019 IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment  
The research lines that are outlined for the next few years identify the most promising innovation territory for the development of resilient envelopes in materials and construction systems.  ...  In the last two decades, this research lines has fuelled the development and then the entry on the market of different materials supported by a growing demand for resilience and characterized by the adoption  ...  most promising innovation territory for the development of materials, construction systems and resilient envelopes.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1755-1315/296/1/012014 fatcat:betxqswrjjezphx36glo6cktpq

Teats

R. Graham
1961 BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)  
help constructively with advice when it is sought.  ...  Sucking on a teat that has poor resilience. This could be due to poor-quality rubber or to inadequate appreciation of the limited life of a teat.  ...  In the essay on Swift the author gives a masterly analysis of his subject's character and illnesses which no future biographer of this unhappy and disappointed man can afford to ignore. " The mystery about  ... 
doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5237.1453 pmid:13707735 pmcid:PMC1953928 fatcat:3cipgwvt4ze2ldxebs3veuglze

Software Protection Decision Support and Evaluation Methodologies (Dagstuhl Seminar 19331)

Bjorn De Sutter, Christian Collberg, Mila Dalla Preda, Michael Wagner
2019 Dagstuhl Reports  
The seminar is situated in the domain of software protection against so-called man-at-the-end attacks, in which attackers have white-box access to the software that embeds valuable assets with security  ...  The major outcomes are a structure for a white-paper on software protection evaluation methodologies, with some concrete input collected on the basis of four case studies explored during the seminar, and  ...  Two presentations were also given on usable security and challenges and capabilities of modern static analysis of obfuscated code.  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.9.8.1 dblp:journals/dagstuhl-reports/SutterCPW19 fatcat:guwem6swfjf3hm4qaqcfkc6phi

Cryptographic Algorithms [chapter]

2015 Applied Cryptography, Second Edition  
Because of its simplicity, ease of implementation, and speed, RC4 has become one of the most widely used software oriented stream ciphers.  ...  Our implementation provides a high degree of robustness against attacks from execution environments, where the adversary has access to the software implementation, such as in the case of digital right  ...  We, next, introduce further obfuscation with the objective of increasing its resilience against dynamic analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1002/9781119183471.part3 fatcat:rvk3izmftvebbkajuc7xzha6fe

Behavioral detection of malware on mobile handsets

Abhijit Bose, Xin Hu, Kang G. Shin, Taejoon Park
2008 Proceeding of the 6th international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services - MobiSys '08  
Next, we propose a two-stage mapping technique that constructs these signatures at run-time from the monitored system events and API calls in Symbian OS.  ...  We also find that the time and resource overheads of constructing the behavior signatures from lowlevel API calls are acceptably low for their deployment in mobile devices.  ...  Joseph and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and helpful advice.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1378600.1378626 dblp:conf/mobisys/BoseHSP08 fatcat:n6b5xgygqval5claabarxyfnca

"Shared learning" for building urban climate resilience – experiences from Asian cities

Sarah Orleans Reed, Richard Friend, Vu Canh Toan, Pakamas Thinphanga, Ratri Sutarto, Dilip Singh
2013 Environment & Urbanization  
This article suggests that deliberate, strategic intervention by facilitators may contribute to more transformative change on behalf of equitable, socially just outcomes -and thus cautions against seeing  ...  This paper considers how resilience thinking and, in particular, its emphasis on learning has been applied in 10 cities in Vietnam, India, Thailand and Indonesia.  ...  , manufacturing and tourism.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0956247813501136 fatcat:5jcats2lerg2znbh55ntoibh3q

A novel watermarking method for software protection in the cloud

Zhiwei Yu, Chaokun Wang, Clark Thomborson, Jianmin Wang, Shiguo Lian, Athanasios V. Vasilakos
2011 Software, Practice & Experience  
As shown in Figure 9 , when watermarking 100 or fewer programs, using a single PC is faster than running a MapReduce watermarking process on our cloudlet. The cutover point is 200 programs  ...  threat, and where it is the growing norm to interact without boundaries, irrespective of the location of the data or the number of collaborating parties. [27] Below, we evaluate our watermarking system against  ...  We have examined the use of cloud computing for inter-organizational collaborations involving the transmission of copyright software from one party (Alice of TeliaSonera) to another (Bob of Cisco).  ... 
doi:10.1002/spe.1088 fatcat:pw5l4ig7rvfrha5bz5qcr4czpa

The Capital Theory Approach to Sustainability: A Critical Appraisal

David I. Stern
1997 Journal of Economic Issues  
Acknowledgements I would like to thank Robert Kaufmann for suggesting a paper on this topic, and Mick Common  ...  Techniques that involve forecasts can be subjected to sensitivity analysis or the construction of confidence intervals.  ...  when analysis is carried out on a technocratic basis.  ... 
doi:10.1080/00213624.1997.11505895 fatcat:xvyertmktbdlnbsfm63p44ic4q

Fiscal Success: Creating Quality Infrastructure in a Post-COVID World

Craig Langston, Charles Crowley
2022 Sustainability  
This research explores and discusses the extent of agreement between the G20 policy framework on quality infrastructure investment (process theory) against a leading project success evaluation method (  ...  process practice) by mapping both artefacts using qualitative content analysis.  ...  G20 Principles i3d3 Model Characteristics Principle 4: Building resilience against natural disas-ters and other risks Adaptability (and hence resilience) is one of four success factors in the influence  ... 
doi:10.3390/su14031642 fatcat:54mhoxjd2vawnmjntqukd3lrea
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