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OmniLedger: A Secure, Scale-Out, Decentralized Ledger via Sharding

Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias, Philipp Jovanovic, Linus Gasser, Nicolas Gailly, Ewa Syta, Bryan Ford
2018 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)  
We present Om-niLedger, a novel scale-out distributed ledger that preserves longterm security under permissionless operation.  ...  Most existing distributed ledgers are unable to scale-out, i.e., to grow their total processing capacity with the number of validators; and those that do, compromise security or decentralization.  ...  security or support for permis-E l a s t i c o [ 3 4 ] Scale-Out B y z C o i n [ 3 2 ] Decentralization RSCoin [16] Security OmniLedger Fig. 1 : Trade-offs in current DL systems. sionless decentralization  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2018.000-5 dblp:conf/sp/Kokoris-KogiasJ18 fatcat:ssh5gij6mzhbpkr5fukyfdqcwu

A Comprehensive Survey on Sharding in Blockchains

Jinwen Xi, Shihong Zou, Guoai Xu, Yanhui Guo, Yueming Lu, Jiuyun Xu, Xuanwen Zhang, Francesco Gringoli
2021 Mobile Information Systems  
This study provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to blockchain sharding, along with a detailed comparison and evaluation for primarily considered sharding mechanisms.  ...  As the scale of the network expands, one of the most practical ways to achieve horizontal scalability is sharding, where the network is divided into multiple subnetworks to avoid repeated communication  ...  Ford, “Omniledger: a secure, scale-out, decentralized asynchronous consensus zones,” in Proceedings of the 16th ledger via sharding,” in Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE Sym- {USENIX  ... 
doi:10.1155/2021/5483243 fatcat:x67pir24enadjaauwvbh76dpre

Survey: Sharding in Blockchains

Guangsheng Yu, Xu Wang, Kan Yu, Wei Ni, J. Andrew Zhang, Ren Ping Liu
2020 IEEE Access  
In regards to this issue, a number of solutions have been proposed, targeting to boost the scalability while preserving the decentralization and security.  ...  This paper presents a survey focusing on sharding in Blockchains in a systematic and comprehensive way.  ...  UCOT Australia is a full-industry chain anti-counterfeiting traceability solution operator, dedicated to research and development of technology products based on Blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2965147 fatcat:vtvhdid44vckfao3qpgfuvjbn4

Security Analysis of Sharding in the Blockchain System

Dachao Yu, Hao Xu, Lei Zhang, Bin Cao, Muhammad Ali Imran
2021 2021 IEEE 32nd Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC)  
However, distributing fewer attesting nodes for transactions in a shard may cause higher security risks.  ...  The design of sharding aims to solve the scalability challenge in a blockchain network.  ...  OmniLedger [10] is deployed as the Decentralized Ledger (DL) with a sharding structure.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pimrc50174.2021.9569351 fatcat:nuev2roaizgozge7kc3dspgfpq

Solutions to Scalability of Blockchain: A Survey

Qiheng Zhou, Huawei Huang, Zibin Zheng, Jing Bian
2020 IEEE Access  
This paper attempts to cover the existing scaling solutions for blockchain and classify them by level.  ...  Blockchain-based decentralized cryptocurrencies have drawn much attention and been widely-deployed in recent years.  ...  d: MONOXIDE Monoxide [14] is a scale-out blockchain that proposes Asynchronous Consensus Zones and scales the blockchain linearly while considerably maintaining decentralization and security of the system  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2967218 fatcat:xo2ys75jnfaerhlcirjybsbxai

Performance-Based Analysis of Blockchain Scalability Metric

Jyoti Yadav, Ranjana Shevkar
2021 Tehnički glasnik  
We present a classification and comparison of existing blockchain scalability solutions based on performance along with their pros and cons  ...  INTRODUCTION Blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, immutable ledger with a sequence of blocks interlinked and secured using cryptography.  ...  Throughput is 40 TPS but is only 25% network resilient and 33% committee resilient. 2) Omniledger [16] is a distributed ledger based on sharding protocol.  ... 
doi:10.31803/tg-20210205103310 fatcat:jpg36w5tvngepbmtge4gplug54

Scaling Blockchains: A Comprehensive Survey

Abdelatif Hafid, Abdelhakim Senhaji Hafid, Mustapha Samih
2020 IEEE Access  
In other words, the scalability trilemma states that we can only have two out of either decentralization, scalability or security (i.e., we can pick just one side of the triangle shown in Figure 1 ;  ...  In addition, OmniLedger uses a Byzantine shard atomic commit (Atomix) to deal with cross-shard transactions.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3007251 fatcat:72oattr4dzfzjoxfe2vvqtvuna

RapidChain: A Fast Blockchain Protocol via Full Sharding [article]

Mahdi Zamani, Mahnush Movahedi, Mariana Raykova
2018 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
RapidChain employs an optimal intra-committee consensus algorithm that can achieve very high throughputs via block pipelining, a novel gossiping protocol for large blocks, and a provably-secure reconfiguration  ...  Aside from the limited scalability, these protocols achieve weak security guarantees due to either a small fault resiliency (e.g., 1/8 and 1/4) or high failure probability, or they rely on strong assumptions  ...  OmniLedger In a more recent work, Kokoris-Kogias et al. [42] propose OmniLedger, a sharding-based distributed ledger protocol that attempts to fix some of the issues of Elastico.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/ZamaniMR18 fatcat:kapsvkuq5fa4ln6w4tyzsm3fxm

Towards Scaling Blockchain Systems via Sharding [article]

Hung Dang, Tien Tuan Anh Dinh, Dumitrel Loghin, Ee-Chien Chang, Qian Lin, Beng Chin Ooi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we take a principled approach to apply sharding, which is a well-studied and proven technique to scale out databases, to blockchain systems in order to improve their transaction throughput  ...  Next, we design an efficient shard formation protocol that leverages a trusted random beacon to securely assign nodes into shards.  ...  The resulting blockchain will enable scale-out applications that offer the security benefits of a decentralized blockchain with a performance similar to that of a centralized system.  ... 
arXiv:1804.00399v4 fatcat:cyulzlarwfgyris4l2bty6yczi

Effective Scaling of Blockchain Beyond Consensus Innovations and Moore's Law [article]

Yinqiu Liu, Kai Qian, Jianli Chen, Kun Wang, Lei He
2020 arXiv   pre-print
However, a long-standing bottleneck hindering its further development is the massive resource consumption attributed to the distributed storage and computation methods.  ...  hardware scaling is about to end.  ...  Effectively scaling up blockchain, without affecting its properties of decentralization and security, constructs a "trilemma" and poses daunting challenges for researchers [14] .  ... 
arXiv:2001.01865v2 fatcat:yhjx2yxtdnaapgj7xleuyqjeri

A Scalable Blockchain-based Smart Contract Model for Decentralized Voltage Stability Using Sharding Technique [article]

Kimia Honari, Xiaotian Zhou, Sara Rouhani, Scott Dick, Hao Liang, James Miller Li, James Miller
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We furthermore investigate sharding mechanisms as a means of improving the system's scalability with fixed computing resources.  ...  This study proposes implementing a decentralized voltage stability algorithm using blockchain-based smart contracts, as a testbed for evaluating the performance of blockchains in real-time control.  ...  Then the data is sent via an HTTPS request to the RESTful Web-service to submit or query a transaction on the ledger.  ... 
arXiv:2206.13776v1 fatcat:tkxjmmeh2jh4xnznlx7dlqoteu

MedShard: Electronic Health Record Sharing Using Blockchain Sharding

Faiza Hashim, Khaled Shuaib, Farag Sallabi
2021 Sustainability  
Blockchain can revolutionize the healthcare system by providing a decentralized, distributed, immutable, and secure architecture.  ...  However, scalability has always been a bottleneck in blockchain networks due to the consensus mechanism and ledger replication to all network participants.  ...  In this regard, MedRec did not provide a solution for scaling out the technology.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su13115889 fatcat:unv7r62dajfprn7ziwebd72qly

PolyShard: Coded Sharding Achieves Linearly Scaling Efficiency and Security Simultaneously [article]

Songze Li, Mingchao Yu, Chien-Sheng Yang, A. Salman Avestimehr, Sreeram Kannan, Pramod Viswanath
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Today's blockchain designs suffer from a trilemma claiming that no blockchain system can simultaneously achieve decentralization, security, and performance scalability.  ...  However, existing sharding proposals achieve efficiency scaling by compromising on trust - corrupting the nodes in a given shard will lead to the permanent loss of the corresponding portion of data.  ...  To scale out throughput and storage efficiency, the leading solution being discussed in the blockchain literature is via sharding [8] - [10] .  ... 
arXiv:1809.10361v2 fatcat:gephivm3ynaztorqnjjqjlkwmi

CycLedger: A Scalable and Secure Parallel Protocol for Distributed Ledger via Sharding [article]

Mengqian Zhang, Jichen Li, Zhaohua Chen, Hongyin Chen, Xiaotie Deng
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We present CycLedger, a scalable and secure parallel protocol for distributed ledger via sharding.  ...  Traditional public distributed ledgers have not been able to scale-out well and work efficiently. Sharding is deemed as a promising way to solve this problem.  ...  RSCoin [9] implements a centralized monetary system via sharding, however, it is not decentralized and cannot transplant to distributed ledgers.  ... 
arXiv:2001.06778v4 fatcat:vd64ab2heneqhibqhiyxrrahpi

Toward reducing cross-shard transaction overhead in sharded blockchains

Liuyang Ren, Paul A. S. Ward, Bernard Wong
2022 Proceedings of the 16th ACM International Conference on Distributed and Event-Based Systems  
Sharding is a promising approach to high-performance blockchains and has been extensively explored in academia recently.  ...  To reduce cross-shard transactions in UTXO-based sharded blockchains, we propose Rooted Graph Placement, which identifies the most appropriate shard for a transaction based on the interaction between the  ...  OmniLedger partitions peers in the blockchain network into concurrently operating shards that maintain their respective ledgers and states.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3524860.3539641 fatcat:uoc5vz76m5hhhfhgxe5exrzwsy
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