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Observing Interventions: A logic for thinking about experiments [article]

Fausto Barbero, Katrin Schulz, Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada, Kaibo Xie
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The resulting logic can model reasoning about thought experiments.  ...  Crucial for our approach is the idea that the notion of an intervention can be used as a formal expression of a (real or hypothetical) experiment.  ...  Just thinking about an experiment will teach you nothing about the outside world. You need to observe the effects.  ... 
arXiv:2111.12978v2 fatcat:styylwvlerfkjb6lj377ekgq4q

Inferring causal networks from observations and interventions

M Steyvers
2003 Cognitive Science  
Information about the structure of a causal system can come in the form of observational datarandom samples of the system's autonomous behavior-or interventional data-samples conditioned on the particular  ...  Here we study people's ability to infer causal structure from both observation and intervention, and to choose informative interventions on the basis of observational data.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by a grant from NTT Communication Sciences Laboratory.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0364-0213(03)00010-7 fatcat:jleynyyulzgabhuqlyldffnaoa

Inferring causal networks from observations and interventions

Mark Steyvers, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Ben Blum
2003 Cognitive Science  
Information about the structure of a causal system can come in the form of observational datarandom samples of the system's autonomous behavior-or interventional data-samples conditioned on the particular  ...  Here we study people's ability to infer causal structure from both observation and intervention, and to choose informative interventions on the basis of observational data.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by a grant from NTT Communication Sciences Laboratory.  ... 
doi:10.1207/s15516709cog2703_6 fatcat:xdkyy7gui5dqnpkyivom4wukme

Inferring interventional predictions from observational learning data

B. MEDER, Y. HAGMAYER, M. R. WALDMANN
2008 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
In two experiments, we therefore presented learners with trial-by-trial observational learning input referring to a complex causal model consisting of four events.  ...  Previous research has shown that people are capable of deriving correct predictions for previously unseen actions from passive observations of causal systems (Waldmann & Hagmayer, 2005) .  ...  For example, physicians often observe symptoms (i.e., effects) prior to learning about their causes.  ... 
doi:10.3758/pbr.15.1.75 pmid:18605483 fatcat:7675jkyk6vc7xc7mwsgmyvjj6m

Causal structure learning over time: Observations and interventions

Benjamin M. Rottman, Frank C. Keil
2012 Cognitive Psychology  
Cognitive Psychology 64 (2012) 93-125 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Cognitive Psychology jou rn al homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cogpsych Common cause Chain 1 Chain 2 Parameters for  ...  the three Markov equivalent structures P(a = 1) = .1 P(d = 1) = .3 P(i = 1) = .3 P(d = 1|a = 1) = .75 P(a = 1|d = 1) = .25 P(a = 1|i = 1) = .25 P(d = 1|a = 0) = .25 P(a = 1|d = 0) = .036 P(a = 1|i = 0  ...  The authors thank Eric Taylor for helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2011.10.003 pmid:22155679 pmcid:PMC3309528 fatcat:nrwoyyylkbbrlgmiuqstkqzkwa

Peer Observation as a Professional Development Intervention in EFL Pedagogy

Zulfiqar Ahmad
2020 International Linguistics Research  
Most research on peer observation as a professional development intervention in EFL contexts focuses either on teachers' perceptions about its usefulness or the methodical frameworks.  ...  To fill this gap, the present study arranged a peer observation for a reading lesson on top-down processing skills to reflect upon the strengths and weaknesses of the lesson as well as develop the reading  ...  The reader's world view or knowledge about the topic, and an association with the past experience or exposure, all facilitate the regulation of context for comprehension.  ... 
doi:10.30560/ilr.v3n1p1 fatcat:dkf4zg3m6ncife42vtsfyf5q7a

The role of learning data in causal reasoning about observations and interventions

Bjöörn Meder, York Hagmayer, Michael R. Waldmann
2009 Memory & Cognition  
Recent studies have shown that people have the capacity to derive interventional predictions for previously unseen actions from observational knowledge, a finding that challenges associative theories of  ...  In Experiment 1, the causal strength of the links within a given causal model was varied, whereas in Experiment 2, base rate information was manipulated while keeping the structure of the model constant  ...  Thus, counterfac tual interventions combine inferences about observations with inferences about interventions.  ... 
doi:10.3758/mc.37.3.249 pmid:19246341 fatcat:2i6faqn2bvfqfifpbcgi3v3uje

Transforming youth care through online simulation gaming. Aligning the positions of practitioners and observers

Kees JM van Haaster
2014 Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice  
By 'reflection-on-action', we mean retrospective and prospective thinking about processes of intervention.  ...  about complex practical cases with a view to in view of timely and sustainable intervention?  ... 
doi:10.18352/jsi.414 fatcat:he5ejuyd2vh6tpoqskuwmylhs4

Intervention as Intoxication!

Ricarda Franzen, Sophie Van Balen
2020 Performance Philosophy  
Featuring a wide range of research and contribution styles, reworked and elaborated further for this issue, contributors consider alternative ways of 'intervening'.  ...  In this editorial, in addition to introducing the authors, the editors and Biennial organizers characterize alternative ways of intervening in this issue as a search for humble ways of responding to socio-political  ...  illumination of thinking will teach us about the hashish trance' (Benjamin 1999, 216) .  ... 
doi:10.21476/pp.2020.52298 fatcat:ipqxrhtufvfablbvfywl47k4tq

Observation interventions for motor skill learning and performance: an applied model for the use of observation

Diane M. Ste-Marie, Barbi Law, Amanda M. Rymal, O Jenny, Craig Hall, Penny McCullagh
2012 International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology  
Note The Appendix is available as online supplementary data for this article, see http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/1750984X.2012.665076  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to recognize the contributions of Elizabeth Nolan, for assisting with database searches, and Kelly Vertes who was instrumental in assisting with the references,  ...  about how to effectively focus observation interventions on strategy learning.  ... 
doi:10.1080/1750984x.2012.665076 fatcat:rjknpjffrvepbovgsbey24yalq

On Sraffa, post-Keynesian theories of pricing and capitalist competition: Some observations

Stephanie Blankenburg
2011 European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention  
For the case of post-Keynesian and Sraffian theory, it is suggested that, while a claim to »a general theory of everything« is also unsustainable, a reconsideration of the methodological roots of Sraffa's  ...  The paper explores the implications of the 1920s ›cost controversy‹ for heterodox economic theory (here limited to post-Keynesian and Sraffian analysis).  ...  divide: Marginalism proceeds on the basis of a priori functional relationships, postulated by the scientific observer on the basis of thought-experiments that produce facts to fit his or her imagination  ... 
doi:10.4337/ejeep.2011.01.13 fatcat:6n3vdxmfibcorc4qp2hndccwa4

Quality of intervention delivery in a cluster randomised controlled trial: a qualitative observational study with lessons for fidelity

Karen James, Alan Quirk, Sue Patterson, Geoff Brennan, Duncan Stewart
2017 Trials  
This typology could be used as a tool to collect qualitative observational data about fidelity during trials.  ...  Conclusions: Our study demonstrates how, with appropriate training in participant observation, RAs can collect highquality observational data about the quality of intervention delivery during a trial,  ...  This article presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Programme Grants for Applied Research programme Availability of data and materials The  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13063-017-2189-8 pmid:29149915 pmcid:PMC5693543 fatcat:gjvqeyqj6nchhahugtb4opkjxu

Primary weight maintenance: an observational study exploring candidate variables for intervention

Kristina Lindvall, Paul Jenkins, Maria Emmelin, Melissa Scribani, Margareta Norberg, Christel Larsson, Lars Weinehall
2013 Nutrition Journal  
Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to 3497 individuals in a Swedish population that had two measured weights taken ten years apart, as participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme.  ...  There was a tendency (non significant) for normal weight subgroups to have a higher number of predictors (35.3) than overweight subgroups (28.0). Adjusted R-squared values ranged from 0.1 to 0.420.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the district health nurses working within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, the researchers from Epidemiology and Global Health and Bassett Healthcare  ... 
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-97 pmid:23855935 pmcid:PMC3717287 fatcat:rgxqrgfv5zfxzl532flquwdlg4

INTERVENTIONS

Daho Djerbal, Athena Athanasiou, Elena Tzelepis
2011 HISTOREIN  
Especially in times of crisis, the logic of globalisation favours the rush for motherhood as a "refuge value", when it is not used as an antidepressant as it is the case of many of our contemporaries,  ...  For psychoanalysis, maternal experience is a cultural construction, in my reading, the cultural construction par excellence, one that brings us back to the beginning of human life [hominisation], whereby  ... 
doi:10.12681/historein.14 fatcat:2m5ytlvohfhl5afhu464j7go4q

Exploring changes, and factors associated with changes, in behavioural determinants from a low-cost, scalable education intervention about knee osteoarthritis: An observational cohort study

Thorlene Egerton, Joanne Bolton, Camille E. Short, Kim L. Bennell
2021 BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders  
Objective To explore the relationships between participant characteristics, perceptions of a short educational video about osteoarthritis and its management, and immediate changes in behavioural determinants  ...  People with lower health literacy and lower need for cognition may respond less well to this information about knee osteoarthritis delivered in this way.  ...  Josh Simmich for their contribution to the design and production of the Knee Pain Info Video.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12891-021-04751-2 pmid:34627203 fatcat:qy3ntptnonezdby3ehiioq2fsi
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