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Social learning and the etiology of autism

Nathaniel Lewis Bushwick
2001 New Ideas in Psychology  
The distinction between social learning and ontogenic discovery is discussed and a model of normal social learning is presented, showing its cyclical nature and signi"cance.  ...  The traits of autism are seen as results of failure of the process of social learning.  ...  Thus, the need for nourishment is addressed by innate re#ex, by learning, by reasoning, and by culture.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0732-118x(00)00016-7 fatcat:c5runzjk75evbo4grfwklse5fm

Imitation: what animal imitation tells us about animal cognition

Lucy A. Bates, Richard W. Byrne
2010 Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science  
(learning of new skills by imitation).  ...  Imitation in the service of learning new skills by following another's example can be divided into contextual imitation (when to employ a familiar action, and to what problem) and production imitation  ...  Partly this relates to semantic confusion, between learning by imitation and learning that follows from imitation.  ... 
doi:10.1002/wcs.77 pmid:26271653 fatcat:cuqjvoyjzfhpxheqafpo33uo2u

Can Autonomous Vehicles Identify, Recover From, and Adapt to Distribution Shifts? [article]

Angelos Filos, Panagiotis Tigas, Rowan McAllister, Nicholas Rhinehart, Sergey Levine, Yarin Gal
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we highlight the limitations of current approaches to novel driving scenes and propose an epistemic uncertainty-aware planning method, called robust imitative planning (RIP).  ...  we term adaptive robust imitative planning (AdaRIP).  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by the UK EPSRC CDT in Autonomous Intelligent Machines and Systems (grant reference EP/L015897/1).  ... 
arXiv:2006.14911v2 fatcat:tjowgtfad5c7zgenvfhq7seq4e

Enquire within: cultural evolution and cognitive science

Cecilia Heyes
2018 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
Cultural evolution needs cognitive science to find out whether the conditions necessary for Darwinian evolution are met in the cultural domain.  ...  In a second excursion into cognitive science, I argue that these requirements can be met by metacognitive social learning strategies, and trace the origins of these distinctively human cognitive processes  ...  Acknowledgments I am grateful to Ellen Clarke, Tim Lewens, Kim Sterelny and three anonymous referees for their astute comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0051 pmid:29440517 fatcat:dv7kmqnip5g33oiuqzgfeze4ke

Competence resource specialization, causal ambiguity, and the creation and decay of competitiveness: the role of marketing strategy in new product performance and shareholder value

Jared M. Hansen, Robert E. McDonald, Ronald K. Mitchell
2012 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science  
Results suggest that commitment to learning can mitigate resource lock-in problems with internal competence causal ambiguity, competence causal ambiguity among competitors appears more essential to competitiveness  ...  These barriers develop due to resource lock-in arising from the same specialization processes that lead to the positive barriers to imitation that deter competitors.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank William Baker, Ruth Bolton, Ajay Kohli, Shelby Hunt, Adelaide King, Michael Levin, James Sinkula, James Wilcox, and the editor and three anonymous reviewers for their  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11747-012-0316-3 fatcat:jbobjpe6qjeozbvruvkzxzoedu

Verbal behavior by B.F. Skinner: Contributions to analyzing early language learning

Scott F. McLaughlin
2010 Journal of Speech and Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis  
Skinner 's Verbal Behavior (1957) is analyzed in the context of early language learning. In the book, Skinner did not emp hasize the foundations for language learning in infants and young children.  ...  These are correlated with terms and concepts used in classical and contemporary research in child language.  ...  It is important to remain aware that Skinner used the term "function" to refer to the causal explanations of verbal behaviors, as when noting that a certain response seems to be causally related to certain  ... 
doi:10.1037/h0100272 fatcat:gjevrh5fhfcdbg7xj77uyulvke

Learning Robust Rewards with Adversarial Inverse Reinforcement Learning [article]

Justin Fu, Katie Luo, Sergey Levine
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Reinforcement learning provides a powerful and general framework for decision making and control, but its application in practice is often hindered by the need for extensive feature and reward engineering  ...  In this work, we propose adverserial inverse reinforcement learning (AIRL), a practical and scalable inverse reinforcement learning algorithm based on an adversarial reward learning formulation.  ...  We would like to thank Roberto Calandra for helpful feedback on the paper.  ... 
arXiv:1710.11248v2 fatcat:2i3gb2uo4rb7fiwm6wfqekc7qi

To Think Human out of the Machine Paradigm: Homo Ex Machina

Alaric Kohler
2010 Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science  
For this reason, I claim that the machine paradigm does not offer the relevant frame for integrating results from various domains or approaches within human sciences, even if it can sometimes produce relevant  ...  Experience, agency and plasticity of human being are excluded in the scientific models and research activities when they are situated in the machine paradigm.  ...  A child cutting herself with scissors for the first time can learn that the knife cuts, and if she does, it is through the awareness she has that the knife has hurt her.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12124-010-9113-z pmid:20112004 fatcat:n74rzmatfbeg7gwfwfkd7ncojq

Primate culture and social learning

A Whiten
2000 Cognitive Science  
; feedback guiding the construction of imitations; conceptual grasp of imitation; and the reciprocal relationship between social learning and culture.  ...  Processes of social learning (learning from others) are important for cognitive science to understand because they are cognitively complex and take many interrelated forms; they shape traditions, cultures  ...  Acknowledgments: For comments on earlier drafts of this paper I am grateful to Debbie Custance, Vincent Janik, Bill McGrew, Adam Miklosa, Chris Moore, Jim Moore, Peter Slater, Chuck Snowdon, Joanne Tanner  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0364-0213(00)00027-6 fatcat:mxnb4ppezrbdvagxgfpc42n65e

Primate Culture and Social Learning

Andrew Whiten
2000 Cognitive Science  
; feedback guiding the construction of imitations; conceptual grasp of imitation; and the reciprocal relationship between social learning and culture.  ...  Processes of social learning (learning from others) are important for cognitive science to understand because they are cognitively complex and take many interrelated forms; they shape traditions, cultures  ...  Acknowledgments: For comments on earlier drafts of this paper I am grateful to Debbie Custance, Vincent Janik, Bill McGrew, Adam Miklosa, Chris Moore, Jim Moore, Peter Slater, Chuck Snowdon, Joanne Tanner  ... 
doi:10.1207/s15516709cog2403_6 fatcat:m4nrbpv2yvf5plngrys7vkoyya

Learning by imitation: a hierarchical approach

R W Byrne, A E Russon
1998 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Program level imitation is a high-level, constructive mechanism, adapted for the efficient learning of complex skills and thus not evident in the simple manipulations used to test for imitation in the  ...  Action level imitation is seldom observed in great ape skill learning, and may have a largely social role, even in humans.  ...  In fact we found considerable confusion about what constitutes an "action," and this led to confusion about actionlevel imitation.  ... 
pmid:10097023 fatcat:qieb6t76vfcj7fyvynrafi3zai

When actions are carved at the joints

Merideth Gattis, Harold Bekkering, Andreas Wohlschläger
1998 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
In fact we found considerable confusion about what constitutes an "action," and this led to confusion about actionlevel imitation.  ...  learning of how to manipulate object-object relationships.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x98301740 fatcat:2nf7e6h645bcvgdwzbcgrklkri

Sequential Analyses, Multiple Controlling Stimuli, and Temporal Patterning in First-Language Transmission

Ernst L. Moerk
1999 The Analysis of Verbal Behavior  
Although inferences of causality from contingencies are problematic, as Hume argued, and are difficult to prove empirically, explanatory accounts of normal language acquisition and all remedial interventions  ...  Nevertheless, expansions and innovations in the behavioral repertoire are suggested as conducive to mutual enrichment of the two fields of the experimental analysis of behavior and first-language acquisition  ...  (b) Within linguistic structures, regular sequences of elements result in pattern recognition.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf03392949 pmid:22477160 pmcid:PMC2748575 fatcat:x4ejgz3ga5albcicg3iqq3ifii

Can Nonhuman Primates Read Minds?

Joëlle Proust
1999 Philosophical Topics  
as mental instruments for directing other individual's awareness.  ...  Sarah Boysen has trained chimpanzees to learn numerosity in sets of objects and to learn corresponding numerical symbols59.  ... 
doi:10.5840/philtopics199927124 fatcat:qiaaofwnqve43f5pu4woajogii

The theory of social functions: challenges for computational social science and multi-agent learning

Cristiano Castelfranchi
2001 Cognitive Systems Research  
It is argued that in order to reproduce some behaviour, its effects should not necessarily be 'good' i.e. useful for the goal of the agent or of some higher macro-system.  ...  In order to account for the functional character of intentional action, we need a somewhat sophisticated model of intention, and a different view of layered cognitive architectures combining explicit beliefs  ...  I'm also in debt to Luke Kaven for several discussions on the subject and very useful philosophical suggestions that, for my limits, I was not able to really manage in this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1389-0417(01)00013-4 fatcat:miiofdaobfforjwohapdtxojem
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