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Recognizing handwritten text

James A. Pittman
1991 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems Reaching through technology - CHI '91  
If recognizes require unnaturally neat or boxed character input, such systems may fail in the marketplace. Neural nets have shown excellent performance at handwriting recognition.  ...  Handwriting recognition may be an important component of such systems, but only if everyday sloppy handwriting can be accommodated.  ...  Figure 3 : 3 #a.mz #a..z #a..z #a..z #a..z #a..z A network to employ context in character recognition.  ... 
doi:10.1145/108844.108914 dblp:conf/chi/Pittman91 fatcat:oxsolzpkxfbezm6bmrhrfvceai

Handwritten Character Recognition on Focused on the Segmentation of Character Prototypes in Small Strips

Ali Benafia, Smaine Mazouzi, Benafia Sara
2017 International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications  
A handwritten text can contain letters lowercase, uppercase letters, characters sticks and digits.  ...  Therefore, it is capital to know extract and separate all these different units in order to process them with specific algorithms to their class handwriting.  ...  The results obtained by our approach in a Multi scripter context of mixed writing are promising and encouraging.  ... 
doi:10.5815/ijisa.2017.12.04 fatcat:c6skwzsz2ffyrhnty2osu5okpe

Handwritten Optical Character Recognition (OCR): A Comprehensive Systematic Literature Review (SLR) [article]

Jamshed Memon, Maira Sami, Rizwan Ahmed Khan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Given the ubiquity of handwritten documents in human transactions, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of documents have invaluable practical worth.  ...  Optical character recognition is a science that enables to translate various types of documents or images into analyzable, editable and searchable data.  ...  of mixed numerals. 719 2009 [24] 262 2009 [25] A novel connectionist system for unconstrained handwriting recognition. 1175 2009 [26] Markov models for offline handwriting recognition  ... 
arXiv:2001.00139v1 fatcat:p3rdutz35besxfxf7suozt7r2u

optical character recognition [chapter]

Martin H. Weik
2000 Computer Science and Communications Dictionary  
When hand-printed characters were considered, the character set was constrained to numerals and a few letters and symbols.  ...  Figure 8 : 8 Elliptical Fourier descriptors Figure 9 : 9 Strokes extracted from the capital letters F, H and N.  ... 
doi:10.1007/1-4020-0613-6_12944 fatcat:6gd2qmtoxbdvjebz3mc6yeizia

Optical Character Recognition [chapter]

2016 Practical Laboratory Automation  
When hand-printed characters were considered, the character set was constrained to numerals and a few letters and symbols.  ...  Figure 8 : 8 Elliptical Fourier descriptors Figure 9 : 9 Strokes extracted from the capital letters F, H and N.  ... 
doi:10.1002/9783527801954.app2 fatcat:i7yhlctvwnh23fvgfyqubxsvhm

Optical character recognition

1986 Computer Communications  
When hand-printed characters were considered, the character set was constrained to numerals and a few letters and symbols.  ...  Figure 8 : 8 Elliptical Fourier descriptors Figure 9 : 9 Strokes extracted from the capital letters F, H and N.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0140-3664(86)90284-7 fatcat:gcuc2u2idrfzbbgbylafwv6rmm

Objective evaluation of the discriminant power of features in an HMM-based word recognition system [chapter]

A. El-Yacoubi, M. Gilloux, R. Sabourin, C. Y. Suen
1997 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper describes an elegant method for evaluating the discriminant power of features in the framework of an HMM-based word recognition system.  ...  This method employs statistical indicators, entropy and perplexity, to quantify the capability of each feature to discriminate between classes without resorting to the result of the recognition phase.  ...  Fig. 2 . 2 Variability of handwriting styles: Handprinted (a) and (b), Cursive (c) and Mixed (d) and (e).  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-63791-5_4 fatcat:ntttdkkmobaopdjcrb64ilht6q

Preliminary Research on Computer-Assisted Transcription of Medieval Scripts in the Latin Alphabet using AI Computer Vision techniques and Machine Learning. A Romanian Exploratory Initiative

Adinel C. Dincă, Emil Ștețco
2020 Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Digitalia  
Our description will start by summarizing the previous attempts and the mixed-results achieved in e-palaeography so far, a continuously growing field of combined scholarship at an international level.  ...  in an experimental project aiming to assist and improve the transcription effort of medieval texts with AI software solutions, uniquely designed and trained for the task.  ...  Acknowledgment This work was supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNDI-UEFISCDI, project PN-III-P4-ID-PCCF-2016-0064: "The Rise of an Intellectual Elite in  ... 
doi:10.24193/subbdigitalia.2020.1.03 fatcat:egilfihzibhllenf4q23vt5rtu

Historical Document Processing: Historical Document Processing: A Survey of Techniques, Tools, and Trends [article]

James P. Philips, Nasseh Tabrizi
2020 arXiv   pre-print
, to convert images of ancient manuscripts, letters, diaries, and early printed texts automatically into a digital format usable in data mining and information retrieval systems.  ...  It incorporates algorithms and software tools from various subfields of computer science, including computer vision, document analysis and recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning  ...  Therefore, handwriting recognition (in contrast to optical character recognition) usually relies on a recognition methodology that is segmentation free at the character level.  ... 
arXiv:2002.06300v2 fatcat:nxufntuk7famfph6ownyuys2py

Discrimination between Arabic and Latin from bilingual documents [article]

Sofiene Haboubi and Samia Maddouri and Hamid Amiri
2012 arXiv   pre-print
2011 International Conference on Communications, Computing and Control Applications (CCCA)  ...  Contrary to the Latin script, the Arab characters are script from the right to left, and do not comprise capital letters.  ...  Among the obtained results, we find the OCR (Optical characters recognition). This system makes to read the scripts form images, to convert them in numerical form.  ... 
arXiv:1204.1615v1 fatcat:fuq5bm5465dntaflwcg7yrakou

A survey of methods and strategies in character segmentation

R.G. Casey, E. Lecolinet
1996 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  
The higher recognition rates for isolated characters vs. those obtained for words and connected character strings well illustrate this fact.  ...  A good part of recent progress in reading unconstrained printed and written text may be ascribed to more insightful handling of segmentation. This paper provides a review of these advances.  ...  Acknowledgment An earlier, abbreviated version of this survey was presented at ICDAR95 in Montreal, Canada. Prof. George Nagy and Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1109/34.506792 fatcat:jxlca7tthvgslazh57y5ki3fke

Handwritten Optical Character Recognition (OCR): A Comprehensive Systematic Literature Review (SLR)

Jamshed Memon, Maira Sami, Rizwan Ahmed Khan, Mueen Uddin
2020 IEEE Access  
Given the ubiquity of handwritten documents in human transactions, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of documents have invaluable practical worth.  ...  Optical character recognition is a science that enables to translate various types of documents or images into analyzable, editable and searchable data.  ...  FIGURE 11 . 11 (a) Primitive and relations (b) Directed graph for capital letter R and E [100] . FIGURE 12 . 12 Sample image from CEDAR dataset [42] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3012542 fatcat:f5bfni5kbfhf3i63lvv3t6pena

Deep Learning for Historical Document Analysis and Recognition—A Survey

Francesco Lombardi, Simone Marinai
2020 Journal of Imaging  
Nowadays, deep learning methods are employed in a broad range of research fields. The analysis and recognition of historical documents, as we survey in this work, is not an exception.  ...  We also discuss research datasets published in the field and their applications.  ...  of the presence of various artefacts (like capital illuminated letters and marginalia, that is, notes added to the page).  ... 
doi:10.3390/jimaging6100110 pmid:34460551 pmcid:PMC8321201 fatcat:nevh2ctshzfwtey4girgjtaftq

A survey on Arabic character segmentation

Yasser M. Alginahi
2012 International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition  
Arabic character segmentation is a necessary step in Arabic Optical Character Recognition (OCR).  ...  The cursive nature of Arabic script poses challenging problems in Arabic character recognition; however, incorrectly segmented characters will cause misclassifications of characters which in turn may lead  ...  In the last few years, there, also, has been recent work in different areas such as text segmentation from mixed documents [117] , omnifont Arabic text recognition using HMM [118] , online Arabic handwriting  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10032-012-0188-6 fatcat:w5hszp2ksbcb3kw627yw2cwehy

Capitalization and punctuation restoration: a survey

Vasile Păiş, Dan Tufiş
2021 Artificial Intelligence Review  
Ensuring proper punctuation and letter casing is a key pre-processing step towards applying complex natural language processing algorithms.  ...  This is especially significant for textual sources where punctuation and casing are missing, such as the raw output of automatic speech recognition systems.  ...  This is confirmed in numerous papers cited throughout this survey where such individual models were compared with mixed models.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10462-021-10051-x fatcat:j4blakzh5rew3iljtytpcnnc4q
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