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Erratum to "Frequency Linear-time Temporal Logic" [article]

Benedikt Bollig, Normann Decker, Martin Leucker
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We correct our proof of a theorem stating that satisfiability of frequency linear-time temporal logic is undecidable [TASE 2012].
arXiv:2010.00296v1 fatcat:gszroaywxvhspl5nc6pua63ane

Ordered Navigation on Multi-attributed Data Words [article]

Normann Decker, Peter Habermehl, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2014 arXiv   pre-print
We study temporal logics and automata on multi-attributed data words. Recently, BD-LTL was introduced as a temporal logic on data words extending LTL by navigation along positions of single data values. As allowing for navigation wrt. tuples of data values renders the logic undecidable, we introduce ND-LTL, an extension of BD-LTL by a restricted form of tuple-navigation. While complete ND-LTL is still undecidable, the two natural fragments allowing for either future or past navigation along
more » ... values are shown to be Ackermann-hard, yet decidability is obtained by reduction to nested multi-counter systems. To this end, we introduce and study nested variants of data automata as an intermediate model simplifying the constructions. To complement these results we show that imposing the same restrictions on BD-LTL yields two 2ExpSpace-complete fragments while satisfiability for the full logic is known to be as hard as reachability in Petri nets.
arXiv:1404.6064v1 fatcat:t2tffmcvwvcmxmpw6sn344ocym

Monitoring Modulo Theories [chapter]

Normann Decker, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper considers a generic approach to enhance traditional runtime verification techniques towards first-order theories in order to reason about data. This allows especially for the verification of multi-threaded, object-oriented systems. It presents a general framework lifting the monitor synthesis for propositional temporal logics to a temporal logic over structures within some first-order theory. To evaluate such temporal properties, SMT solving and classical monitoring of propositional
more » ... emporal properties is combined. The monitoring procedure was implemented for linear-time temporal logic (LTL) based on the Z3 SMT solver and evaluated regarding runtime performance.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54862-8_23 fatcat:tqqr3a5efrbg5jviy5obssjjwa

On Freeze LTL with Ordered Attributes [article]

Normann Decker, Daniel Thoma
2016 arXiv   pre-print
[DHLT14] Normann Decker, Peter Habermehl, Martin Leucker, and Daniel Thoma. Ordered navigation on multi-attributed data words.  ... 
arXiv:1504.06355v2 fatcat:ocakzximivd4fa37xxb6tms77y

Model-checking Counting Temporal Logics on Flat Structures [article]

Normann Decker, Peter Habermehl, Martin Leucker, Arnaud Sangnier, and Daniel Thoma
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We study several extensions of linear-time and computation-tree temporal logics with quantifiers that allow for counting how often certain properties hold. For most of these extensions, the model-checking problem is undecidable, but we show that decidability can be recovered by considering flat Kripke structures where each state belongs to at most one simple loop. Most decision procedures are based on results on (flat) counter systems where counters are used to implement the evaluation of counting operators.
arXiv:1706.08608v1 fatcat:y6qb7w4fhjc2vibajxtrasllma

Learning Transparent Data Automata [chapter]

Normann Decker, Peter Habermehl, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper studies the problem of learning data automata (DA), a recently introduced model for defining languages of data words which are finite sequences of pairs of letters from a finite and, respectively, infinite alphabet. The model of DA is closely related to general Petri nets, for which no active learning algorithms have been introduced so far. This paper defines transparent data automata (tDA) as a strict subclass of deterministic DA. Yet, it is shown that every language accepted by DA
more » ... an be obtained as the projection of the language of some tDA. The model of class memory automata (CMA) is known to be equally expressive as DA. However deterministic DA are shown to be strictly less expressive than deterministic CMA. For the latter, and hence for tDA, equivalence is shown to be decidable. On these grounds, in the spirit of Angluin's L * algorithm we develop an active learning algorithm for tDA. They are incomparable to register automata and variants, for which learning algorithms were given recently.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07734-5_8 fatcat:3ieivttumvdwbi6umqex5pvuwq

jUnitRV–Adding Runtime Verification to jUnit [chapter]

Normann Decker, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
eventsSpecify temporal properties in LTL Associate tests with monitors using annotations jUnit RV generates and injects monitors jUnit RV integrates seamlessly into IDEs and build tools jUnit RV is extensible Normann  ...  Decker, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma May 14, 2013 2/4 A jUnit RV Test @RunWith(RVRunner.class) public class MyDataClientTest { private static final String dataServiceQname = "junitrvexamples.DataService  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38088-4_34 fatcat:pdwem74txnfohknbixlwagnsb4

Ordered Navigation on Multi-attributed Data Words [chapter]

Normann Decker, Peter Habermehl, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We study temporal logics and automata on multi-attributed data words. Recently, BD-LTL was introduced as a temporal logic on data words extending LTL by navigation along positions of single data values. As allowing for navigation wrt. tuples of data values renders the logic undecidable, we introduce ND-LTL, an extension of BD-LTL by a restricted form of tuple-navigation. While complete ND-LTL is still undecidable, the two natural fragments allowing for either future or past navigation along
more » ... values are shown to be Ackermann-hard, yet decidability is obtained by reduction to nested multi-counter systems. To this end, we introduce and study nested variants of data automata as an intermediate model simplifying the constructions. To complement these results we show that imposing the same restrictions on BD-LTL yields two 2ExpSpace-complete fragments while satisfiability for the full logic is known to be as hard as reachability in Petri nets.
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-44584-6_34 fatcat:caz45oe2cnelha5wxllluwg7xy

Runtime Monitoring with Union-Find Structures [chapter]

Normann Decker, Jannis Harder, Torben Scheffel, Malte Schmitz, Daniel Thoma
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper is concerned with runtime verification of objectoriented software system. We propose a novel algorithm for monitoring the individual behaviour and interaction of an unbounded number of runtime objects. This allows for evaluating complex correctness properties that take runtime data in terms of object identities into account. In particular, the underlying formal model can express hierarchical interdependencies of individual objects. Currently, the most efficient monitoring approaches
more » ... or such properties are based on lookup tables. In contrast, the proposed algorithm uses union-find data structures to manage individual instances and thereby accomplishes a significant performance improvement. The time complexity bounds of the very efficient operations on union-find structures transfer to our monitoring algorithm: the execution time of a single monitoring step is guaranteed logarithmic in the number of observed objects. The amortised time is bound by an inverse of Ackermann's function. We have implemented the algorithm in our monitoring tool Mufin. Benchmarks show that the targeted class of properties can be monitored extremely efficient and runtime overhead is reduced substantially compared to other tools.
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-49674-9_54 fatcat:ui36oatee5bprmd6hm5cjwgh64

Frequency Linear-time Temporal Logic

Benedikt Bollig, Normann Decker, Martin Leucker
2012 2012 Sixth International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering  
We propose fLTL, an extension to linear-time temporal logic (LTL) that allows for expressing relative frequencies by a generalization of temporal operators. This facilitates the specification of requirements such as the deadlines in a realtime system must be met in at least 95% of all cases. For our novel logic, we establish an undecidability result regarding the satisfiability problem but identify a decidable fragment which strictly increases the expressiveness of LTL by allowing, e.g., to
more » ... ess non-context-free properties. Powers of finite words and letters are to be read in the common way, i.e. w 0 = ε and w n+1 = ww n . For an infinite word w = a 0 a 1 a 2 . . . ∈ Σ ω (a i ⊆ AP) we denote the finite prefix of length n by w| n = a 0 a 1 . . . a n−1 and the n-th true (infinite) suffix by w| n = a n a n+1 . . . . Thus, w| 0 = ε and w = w| 0 = w| n w| n . This notation is analogously used for linear sequences in general, such as paths. We sometimes specify alphabets directly when propositions are not needed explicitly. The reader may assume any set AP that allows for
doi:10.1109/tase.2012.43 dblp:conf/tase/BolligDL12 fatcat:bflvs2oadnbj3gm7fekmy257gq

Monitoring modulo theories

Normann Decker, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2015 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
This paper considers a generic approach to enhance traditional runtime verification techniques towards first-order theories in order to reason about data. This allows especially for the verification of multithreaded, object-oriented systems. It presents a general framework lifting the monitor synthesis for propositional temporal logics to a temporal logic over structures within some first-order theory. To evaluate such temporal properties, SMT solving and classical monitoring of propositional
more » ... mporal properties is combined. The monitoring procedure was implemented for linear-time temporal logic (LTL) based on the Z3 SMT solver and evaluated regarding runtime performance.
doi:10.1007/s10009-015-0380-3 fatcat:jx6zkqcowbfuvbt3snfrjhbz7u

Impartiality and Anticipation for Monitoring of Visibly Context-Free Properties [chapter]

Normann Decker, Martin Leucker, Daniel Thoma
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We study monitoring of visibly context-free properties. These properties reflect the common concept of nesting which arises naturally in software systems. They can be expressed e.g. in the temporal logic CaRet which extends LTL by means of matching calls and returns. The future fragment of CaRet enables us to give a direct unfolding-based automaton construction, similar to LTL. We provide a four-valued, impartial semantics on finite words which is particularly suitable for monitoring. This
more » ... s us to synthesize monitors in terms of deterministic push-down Mealy machines. To go beyond impartiality, we develop a construction for anticipatory monitors from visibly push-down ω-automata by utilizing a decision procedure for emptiness.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40787-1_11 fatcat:l3cunqlltrdezdmrmxbhmbjpo4

Runtime Verification of Web Services for Interconnected Medical Devices

Normann Decker, Franziska Kuhn, Daniel Thoma
2014 2014 IEEE 25th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering  
This paper presents a framework to ensure the correctness of service-oriented architectures based on runtime verification techniques. Traditionally, the reliability of safety critical systems is ensured by testing the complete system including all subsystems. When those systems are designed as serviceoriented architectures, and independently developed subsystems are composed to new systems at runtime, this approach is no longer viable. Instead, the presented framework uses runtime monitors
more » ... esised from high-level specifications to ensure safety constraints. The framework has been designed for the interconnection of medical devices in the operating room. As a case study, the framework is applied to the interconnection of an ultrasound dissector and a microscope. Benchmarks show that the monitoring overhead is negligible in this setting.
doi:10.1109/issre.2014.16 dblp:conf/issre/DeckerKT14 fatcat:htfw6fg7tze4xfsrcrbqvbepcu

Rapidly Adjustable Non-intrusive Online Monitoring for Multi-core Systems [chapter]

Normann Decker, Philip Gottschling, Christian Hochberger, Martin Leucker, Torben Scheffel, Malte Schmitz, Alexander Weiss
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper presents an approach for rapidly adjustable embedded trace online monitoring of multi-core systems, called RETOM. Today, most commercial multi-core SoCs provide accurate runtime information through an embedded trace unit without affecting program execution. Available debugging solutions can use it to reconstruct the run offline, but usually for up to a few seconds only. RETOM employs a novel online reconstruction technique that makes the program run available outside the SoC and
more » ... s for evaluating a specification formulated in the stream-based specification language TeSSLa in real time. The necessary computing performance is provided by an FPGA-based event processing system. In contrast to other hardware-based runtime verification techniques, changing the specification requires no circuit synthesis and thus seconds rather than minutes or hours. Therefore, iterated testing and property adjustment during development and debugging becomes feasible while preserving the option of arbitrarily extending observation time, which may be necessary to detect rarely occurring errors. Experiments show the feasibility of the approach.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-70848-5_12 fatcat:ejtphr7w3zeh7obawxla2cqkee

Familiy mediation within the counselling system
Praxis der Familienmediation in der Beratung

Reiner Bastine, Birgit Römer-Wolf, Frauke Decker, Achim Haid-Loh, Stefan Mayer, Katrin Normann
2006 Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie  
491, 570, 660, 739, 838 . . 98, 165, 233, 309, 421, 502, 577, 672, 748, 849 Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht (2006) Praxis der Familienmediation in der Beratung 1 Reiner Bastine, Birgit Römer-Wolf, Frauke Decker  ...  , Achim Haid-Loh, Stefan Mayer und Katrin Normann ÜBERSICHTSARBEITEN 1 2 Die Leiterinnen und Leiter dieser Einrichtungen wurden Ende November 2004 angeschrieben und um Mitarbeit an dem Forschungsvorhaben  ... 
pmid:17152893 fatcat:zlgqxp2g5ffghf73kpwzv7paty
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